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wylie | overview
sanskrit - iast
english
français
português
italiano
español
deutsch
polski
definition | eng
updated date
edit
No
gnas lugs mthar thug
modo último de ser
26/07/2022
edit
No
yang dag pa'i mtha' ; yang dag mtha'
bhūtakoṭi
very limit, limit of reality (ultimate), perfect and utmost purity
limite du réel
autenticidade última
perfezione ultima, estrema perfezione,
"perfect and utmost purity" used by WF & HB in The Wisdom Chapter, pg 266.
26/07/2022
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No
nyan thos
śrāvaka
śrāvaka, listener, hearer
auditeur(s), śrāvaka
śrāvaka
śrāvaka, uditori
śrāvaka
A follower of the root vehicle of Buddhism whose goal is to attain liberation from the sufferings of saṃsāra as an arhat. Unlike the followers of the Great Vehicle, the śrāvakas do not aspire to full enlightenment for the sake of all beings. [WOMPT, 1998] A follower of the Basic Vehicle whose goal is to attain liberation for himself or herself as an Arhat. [TLWF, 2011] One who hears the teachings of the Buddha, practices them, and transmits them to others with a view to his or her personal liberation from samsara, rather than the perfect enlightenment of buddhahood. Śrāvakas are practitioners of the Root Vehicle, or Hīnayāna, which is often for that reason called the Śrāvakayāna. [TPQ, 2010] [CMH, 2001] Lit. “one who listens”: one who follows the Basic Vehicle of the Buddha’s teachings and aims to attain liberation for himself as an Arhat. [ZT, 2006] One who hears the teachings of the Buddha, transmits them to others, and practices them. The characteristic goal of the Shravaka is Arhatship, a personal, individual liberation from samsara, rather than the perfect enlightenment of Buddhahood for the sake of all beings. Shravakas are practitioners of the Hinayana or Root Vehicle, hence Shravakayana. [LLB, 2002] A follower of the Lesser Vehicle whose goal is to attain liberation for themselves as an arhat. [NS] The listeners are so called because they listen to the Buddha’s teaching and then teach it to others. [OMS, 2018]
25/07/2022
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No
sems dpa' chen po
mahāsattva
grand être
mahāsattva, grande ser, grande herói
21/07/2022
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No
mkha' 'gro ma , mkha' 'gro
ḍākinī
ḍākinī
Dakini*, héroïne*, messagère de l’espace*, dame de sagesse*
ḍākinī
ḍākinī
ḍākinī
The feminine principle associated with wisdom. This term has several levels of meaning. There are ordinary ḍākinīs who are beings with a certain degree of spiritual power, and wisdom ḍākinīs who are fully realized. [TEPTE, 1996] See three roots. [WOMPT, 1998] lit. moving through space. The representation of wisdom in female form. There are several levels of ḍākinī: wisdom ḍākinīs, who have complete realization, and worldly ḍākinīs, who possess various spiritual powers. The word is also used as a title for great women teachers and as a respectful form of address to the wives of spiritual masters. [TPQ, 2010] lit. “moving through space.” The feminine principle associated with wisdom and with the enlightened activities of the teacher. This term has several levels of meaning. There are ordinary dakinis who are beings with a certain degree of spiritual power, and wisdom dakinis who are fully realized. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006]The male equivalent is a ḍāka.[NS] Pronounced with the stress on the first syllable: dakini. A feminine personification of Wisdom. A distinction is made between wisdom dakinis who are fully enlightened, and "ordinary" or "worldly" dakinis, who, though not fully enlightened, nevertheless possess spiritual power. In Tibetan, the term is used as a title of respect for highly realized yoginis. [LLB, 2002] A representation of wisdom in female form. The dakinis are divided into several classes. There are wisdom dakinis who are fully enlightened and worldly dakinis who possess various spiritual powers. The wisdom dakinis are classified into five groups according to the five enlightened lineages of Tathagata, Vajra, Jewel, Lotus, and Action. See also five enlightened lineages. [WL, 2012]
18/07/2022
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No
rang grol
openness and freedom
auto-liberto
16/06/2022
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No
zhib dpyad zhu dag
critical edition
edição crítica
10/06/2022
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No
'dren rtags
quotation marks (guillemets)
aspas; sinal indicativo de citações
10/06/2022
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No
rigs
gotra, yukta, kula, varṇa,
famille* , classe*, disposition (spirituelle)*, filiation*, familles de bouddha*, Potentiel de bouddha
classe, tipo, familia, raça, genêro/genéro (literário), gene, etc.
09/06/2022
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No
khungs 'den yig cha
bibliography
bibliografia
09/06/2022
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No
mjug mchan
endnote
notas de fim texto.
09/06/2022
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No
'dus yig
abbreviation
abreviação
09/06/2022
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No
ched rtsom
secondary sources
fontes secondárias
09/06/2022
edit
No
phyi'i dpang rtags
external evidence
evidência externa
09/06/2022
edit
No
nang gi dpang rtags
internal evidence
evidência interna
09/06/2022
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No
gzugs
rūpa
forme / matière*, formes*
forma
08/06/2022
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No
snyoms 'jug
samāpatti
égalisation méditative*, parfait équilibre*, Absorption méditative, absorption
equanimidade meditativa
08/06/2022
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No
snyoms 'jug bzhi
the four types of meditative absorptions
quatre absorptions (du Sans-Forme)
quatro equanimidades meditativas
The single-pointed meditative absorptions within the four states of the formless realm, 1. ནམ་མཁའ་མཐའ་ཡས་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། ākāṡāntya samāpatti/ meditative absorption of infinite space 2. རྣམ་ཤེས་མཐའ་ཡས་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། vijñānāntya samāpatti/ meditative absorption of infinite consciousness 3. ཅི་ཡང་མེད་པའི་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། ākincanyāyatana samāpatti/ meditative absorbtion of nothingness 4. སྲིད་རྩེའི་སྙོམས་འཇུག་་ཡོད་མིན་མེད་མིན་སྐྱེ་མཆེད། bhavāgra samāpatti/ meditative absorption of the peб of existence, neither with perception nor without non-perception. [TSR]
08/06/2022
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No
'du shes med pa'i snyoms 'jug
asaṃjñi-samāpatti
absorption of nonperception
absorption méditative sans discernement*, égalisation méditative dénuée de perception*, recueillement sans conscience* , absorption dans l'absence de perceptions
equanimidade meditativa da não-percepção
The absorption experienced by the insensate gods of the form realm and the gods of the formless realms. In this absorption, the sense consciousnesses are arrested although the defiled emotional consciousness (nyon yid) continues to function. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
'gog pa'i snyoms 'jug
nirodha-samāpatti, nirodhasamāpatti
Absorption of cessation
absorption/recueillement de cessation*, ataraxie de cessation*; recueillement méditatif où il n'est plus de pensée, où l'esprit est arrêté*, recueillement (ou absorption) de cessation
equanimidade meditativa da cessação
according to the Mahayana presentation, this is the absorption practiced by the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas as a means of gaining contentment in the course of their present existence. It involves the cessation of the sense consciousnesses and the defiled emotional consciousness. Bodhisattvas also enter this absorption, not, however, as an end in itself, but as a method of training in concentration. ["The absorption of the insensate and the formless gods and that of the cessation enjoyed by Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are similar in that both are characterized by a halting of the sense consciousnesses in the alaya, the fundamental level of the mind. They are, however, different in that the absorption of the insensate gods does not involve the cessation of the defiled emotional consciousness (nyon yid), whereas the cessation of the Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas does. For this reason, ordinary beings can only enter the absorption of nonperception, while the absorption of cessation is the preserve of Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, practitioners of the Hinayana. Moreover, non-Buddhist traditions mistakenly regard the formless absorptions as liberation and train in them as their spiritual path. The Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas enter the absorption of cessation for the sake of contentment during their present lifetime. Sublime Bodhisattvas, by contrast, may enter it as an expedient, simply as a means of training in concentration." [YG I, 188] P.441] [The eighth perfect freedom is the freedom of cessation, an experience possible for Aryas who have attained the four samadhis of form, together with the four formless absorptions, and who have arrested the seven consciousnesses together with all mental factors. For such beings, only the alaya is manifest. They can now abide in the absorption wherein there is neither perception nor feeling. Thus they abide in the absorption of cessation. . . . appendix 9 P.432] [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
thob pa
prāpti
obtention*
obter, alcançar
08/06/2022
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No
yid kyi rnam shes
manovijñāna
conscience mentale*
consciência mental
08/06/2022
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No
dag mnyam chen po
purity and equality
pureté et égalité
-
A central principle of the Vajrayāna. It is the view of the Mahāyoga expounded in the tantra sgyu 'phrul dra ba (Fantasmagorical Net). All appearances, in their purity, are the mandala of the kāyas and wisdoms. This comprises the superior relative truth. Being pure, they are all equal, wisdom and emptiness united. This is superior absolute truth. The "pure" status of the appearing mode and the "equal" status of the absolute mode of being are present indivisibly in every phenomenon. This is referred to as the great Dharmakāya. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
gsur
sur, burnt offering
Aumônes brûlées
sur
sur, offerte bruciate
sur, ofrenda quemada
Food burnt on coals and offered in charity to spirits who are able to consume only the smell of burnt food. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
tshul gsum
trairūpya, trirūpa
three modes of reasoning
Triple modalité*, trois modes, trois éléments d'un syllogisme
-
three criteria for establishing a logical reason. 1. ཕྱོགས་ཆོས། property of the subject 2. རྗེས་ཁྱབ། subsequent pervasion 3. ལྡོག་ཁྱབ། counter pervasion. [TSR]
08/06/2022
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No
shes bya
jñeya
objet de connaissance*, objet connaissable*
objeto de conhecimento
08/06/2022
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No
sgro 'dogs
samāropa
surestimation*, spéculation*, surimposition*, incertitude*, doute*, croyance*
imputação falsa, superimposição
08/06/2022
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No
ngo bo nyid gsum
svabhāva-traya , trayaḥ svabhāvāḥ , trisvabhāva
three natures
Trois natures*, essence*, nature propre*
três naturezas essenciais
Three aspects, as presented by the Yogācāra school, of the nature of phenomena: the imputed nature, the dependent nature, and the fully present nature. Also called three realities.[OMS, 2018]
08/06/2022
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No
mu bzhi
catuṣ-koṭi
Tétralemme*, quatre possibilités*, quatre limites ou extrêmes (du jugement)*
quatro extremos
08/06/2022
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No
'khrul 'khor
yantra
exercices yogiques*, exercices (sur les canaux et les énergies)
yantra
congegno, ingranaggio, marchingegno, artificio
08/06/2022
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No
blo gros brtan pa
sthiramati
Sthiramati
Sthiramati
(510-570 C.E.). A follower of Vasubandhu. It is said that he was the rebirth of a pigeon that had spent its life nesting near Vasubhandu's dwelling place, with the result that it heard the master's recitation of scripture so frequently that it was reborn as a human being and became one of his greatest disciples. [TPQ, 2010] A fifth–sixth-century Indian Abhidharma scholar. He was a disciple of Vasubandhu and wrote numerous commentaries on his master’s works. [OMS, 2018]
08/06/2022
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No
skyes bu gsum
three types of beings
trois types d'êtres
três tipos de seres
(1) those who aspire to happiness in the higher states of samsaric existence; (2) those who aspire to liberation from saṃsāra altogether; and (3) those who aspire to buddhahood for the sake of all beings. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
zhi khro lha
peaceful and wrathful deities
deidades pacíficas e iradas
Meditational deities in peaceful or wrathful forms figuring in the Vajrayāna and representing different aspects of the buddha nature. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
nye 'khor gyi dmyal ba
neighbouring hells
enfers avoisinants
infernos circundantes
Sixteen hells, four in each direction, where suffering is slightly less than in the hot hells around which they are situated. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
nye ba'i sras brgyad ; nye ba'i sras chen brgyad
aṣṭopaputrāḥ
eight close sons.
Huit (Grands) Fils Proches, huit fils proches
oito filhos próximos
The eight main Bodhisattvas in the retinue of Buddha Śākyamuni. They are: Ākāśagarbha, Avalokiteśvara, Kṣitigarbha, Maitreya, Mañjuśrī, Samantabhadra, Sarvanivāraṇaviṣkambhin, and Vajrapāṇi. Symbolically they represent the pure state of the eight consciousnesses. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
mi dal ba brgyad
eight conditions that lack freedom to practice the Dharma.
huit servitudes, huit conditions qui privent de la liberté de pratiquer
oito circunstância desprovidas de liberdade
Eight existential states in which spiritual growth is either impossible or severely hampered. These are the conditions of hell beings, pretas, animals, long-lived gods without perception, the inhabitants of barbarous lands, people who are severely handicapped physically and mentally, and people who espouse false beliefs or who live in a kalpa in which no Buddha has appeared. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
dag pa rab 'byams
infinite purity.
infinie pureté
pureza infinita
A technical term referring to the tantric realization that appearances, sounds, and thoughts are the mandala of the deities, mantras, and primordial wisdom. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
dpag tshad
yojana
league, yojana
Yojana
yojana
legua, yojana
An ancient Indian measurement of distance which according to the Abhidharmakośa corresponds to 4.5 miles or 7.4 kilometres. [TPQ, 2010] An ancient Indian measurement. Different sources describe it as between one and several miles. [OMS, 2018]
08/06/2022
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No
chings chen po lnga
five-element structure
cinq grands schémas
estrutura em cinco pontos
In his Vyākhyāyukti, Vasubandhu describes a five-element structure around which treatises are to be composed. This comprises the purpose of the treatise (dgos pa), the correct arrangement of its parts (mtshams sbyor), the explanation itself (tshig don), its overall meaning (bsdus don), and responses to possible objections ('gal lan). [TPQ, 2010] dgos pa, mtshams sbyor, tshig don, bsdus don, 'gal lan, a five-element structure around which, according to Vasubandhu, treatises should be composed. See Vasubandhu's Vyakhyayukti. Here the system is being applied specifically to the title. The second element, connection (mtshams sbyor), relates to the proper arrangement of the subject. It has not been translated here, for it simply indicates the correct position for the explanation of the title, following the mention of its purpose.(note 4) [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
nges pa lnga
five certainties
cinq certitudes
cinco certezas
See Five excellences. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
phan 'dogs pa'i gzhi
field of benefits
objet (ou destinataire) digne de bienveillance
objeto de benefício, campo de benefício
Beings, such as one's parents, to whom a great debt of gratitude is owed for the kindness they have shown. The field of benefits also includes beings who are natural objects of compassion, such as the sick, the old, and the unprotected. All actions directed to them will bring forth a powerful result. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
nyi tshe ba'i dmyal ba
ephemeral hells
enfers éphémères
infernos efémeros, infernos efêmeros
Infernal states, of varying duration, in which beings suffer due to the fact that they identify as their bodies physical objects such as logs of wood or stoves and suffer the effects of the use to which these objects are put (logs being burned, stoves being heated, doors being slammed, etc.). [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
'phags pa'i lam gyi yan lag brgyad
eightfold noble path.
Octuple sentier (le sublime ou le noble)
nobre caminho óctuplo
Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. These constitute the scheme of moral and spiritual disciplines leading to enlightenment expounded by the Buddha in the course of his teaching on the four noble truths at Sarnath. As such, they form the backbone of the fundamental practice of Buddhism. [TPQ, 2010]
08/06/2022
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No
sdug bsngal brgyad
aṣṭa duḥkhātaḥ
eight types of suffering
huit souffrances (dérivées)
oito sofrimentos, oito tipos de sofrimento
A classification of sufferings particularly associated with the human condition. These are birth, old age, sickness, death, and the sufferings of encountering enemies, of being separated from loved ones, of not having what one wants, and of having to put up with what one does not want. [TPQ, 2010] aṣṭa duḥkhātaḥ/ Eight kinds of suffering. The eight sufferings that Buddha introduced while explaining the faults of the truth of suffering. 1. སྐྱེ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། jāti duḥkham/ suffering of birth 2. རྒ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། jarā duḥkham/ suffering of aging 3. ན་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། vyādhi duḥkham/ suffering of sickness 4. འཆི་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། maraṇa duḥkham/ suffering of death 5. སྡུག་བ་དང་བྲལ་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། priya viprayogo duḥkham/ suffering of separation from cherished objects 6. མི་སྡུག་པ་དང་འཕྲད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། apriya saṁprayogo duḥkham/ suffering of meeting with revolting objects 7. འདོད་པའི་དངོས་པོ་བཙལ་ཀྱང་མི་རྙེད་པའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ། yad apīcchaya paryeṣamāno na labhate tadapi duḥkham/ suffering of not finding desired objects 8. ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ་སྡུག་བསྔལ་བ་ཡིན་པ། saṁkṣepanam pañcoskandha duḥkham/ the suffering of the five aggregates. [TSR]
08/06/2022
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No
rnal 'byor pa , rnal 'byor ma
yogin , yoginī
yogin, yoginī
yogi, yogini
yogin (m), yoginī (f)
yogi, yoginī
yogui o yoguini
Someone who practises yoga, a spiritual practitioner. [WOMPT, 1998] A person practicing a spiritual path. [TLWF, 2011] [NLF, 2005] [ZT, 2006][OMS, 2018][NS] A female yogin.[NS]
29/05/2022
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No
bla ma'i rnal 'byor
guru yoga
Guru Yoga
guru-yoga, yoga du maître, gourou-yoga*
Guru Yoga
Guru Yoga
Guru Yoga
The practice of mixing one's mind with the teacher's mind. [WOMPT, 1998] A practice consisting of the visualization of the guru (in whichever form), prayers and requests for blessing, the visualized reception of these blessings, and the merging of the mind in the guru's enlightened wisdom mind. Guru yoga is the single most important practice of tantric Buddhism. [TPQ, 2010] [LLB, 2002] [CMH, 2001]
29/05/2022
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No
rnal 'byor
yoga, yogaḥ
practice, yoga
yoga, yogas*, yogi* pratique
yoga, união meditativa, união com o estado natural, prática
yoga
yoga
lit. “union (Tib. ’byor) with the natural state (rnal ma).” A term for spiritual practice. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006][OMS, 2018][NS] lit. joining ('byor) or union with the natural state of the mind (rnal ma). A term commonly used to refer to spiritual practice. [TPQ, 2010] Lit. “union with the natural state”: a term for spiritual practice. [NLF, 2005]
29/05/2022
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No
gshin rje gshed
yamāntaka
Yamāntaka
Yamāntaka
Yamāntaka
Yamāntaka
Yamāntaka
Wrathful form of Mañjuśrī. [WOMPT, 1998]
29/05/2022
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No
'dul ba
vinaya
vinaya
vinaya, maîtrise (5e stade mental)*, discipliner, discipline
Vinaya, domar
vinaya
vinaya
One of the Three Piṭakas, containing teachings about monastic dicipline and ethics in general. [WOMPT, 1998] The name of the Buddhist ethical teachings in general and of the code of monastic discipline in particular. [TPQ, 2010] [CMH, 2001] One of the Three Pitakas; the section of the Buddha’s teaching that deals with discipline, and in particular with the vows of monastic ordination. [NLF, 2005] [ZT, 2006] The ethical teachings of Buddhism, particularly in relation to the code of monastic discipline. [LLB, 2002] The section of the Buddha’s teaching that deals with discipline, and in particular with the vows of monastic ordination. [OMS, 2018][NS]
29/05/2022
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No
dri med bshes gnyen
vimalamitra, vimalamitraḥ
Vimalamitra
Vimalamitra
Vimalamitra
Vimalamitra
Vimalamitra
One of the most learned Indian Buddhist masters. He went to Tibet in the 9th century, where he taught extensively, and composed and translated numerous Sanskrit texts. The quintessence of his teaching is known as the Vima Nyingtig, one of the Heart-essence teachings of the Great Perfection. [WOMPT, 1998] An Indian master who held an important place in the lineages of the Great Perfection. He went to Tibet in the 8th century, where he taught extensively, and composed and translated numerous Sanskrit texts. The quintessence of his teaching is known as the Vima Nyingtig. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006][NS] One of the greatest masters and scholars of Indian Buddhism. He went to Tibet in the ninth century, where he taught and translated numerous Sanskrit texts. He was one of the principal sources, together with Guru Padmasambhava, of the Dzogchen teachings in Tibet. [TPQ, 2010] One of the greatest masters and panditas of Indian Buddhism who brought the Dzogchen teachings to Tibet. [LLB 2002] One of the greatest masters and scholars ofIndian Buddhism in general and of the Heart Essence in particular. He went to Tibet in the ninth century, where he taught and translated numerous Sanskrit texts. [CMH, 2001]
29/05/2022
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No
rig 'dzin
vidyādharaḥ, devayoniviśeṣaḥ
vidyādhara, knowledge holder, awareness holder
détenteur de connaissance*, Vidyadhara
vidyādhara, detentor da cognosciência
Vidyādhara
vidyādhara, sostenedor de la conciencia
"One who through profound means holds the deities, mantras, and the wisdom of great bliss." DICT. In the Nyingmapa Tradition there are four levels of vidyādhara: (i) totally matured (rnam smin), (ii) mastering the duration of his life (tshe dbang), (iii) mahamudra (phyag chen), and (iv) spontaneously accomplished (lhun grub). [WOMPT, 1998] Lit. “knowledge holder”: One who through profound means holds the deities, mantras, and the wisdom of great bliss. [ZT, 2006] [TLWF, 2011][NS] lit. awareness holder or knowledge holder. A being of high attainment in the Vajrayāna. According to the Nyingma tradition, there are four levels of Vidyādhara corresponding to the ten (sometimes eleven) levels of realization of the Sūtrayāna. [WL 2012] They are: (1) the Vidyādhara with corporal residue (rnam smin rig 'dzin); (2) the Vidyādhara with power over life (tshe dbang rig 'dzin); (3) the Mahāmudrā Vidyādhara (phyag chen rig 'dzin); and (4) the Vidyādhara of spontaneous presence (lhun grub rig 'dzin). [TPQ, 2010] Lit., Knowledge-Holder. A being of high spiritual attainment. According to the Nyingma tradition, there are four levels of Vidyadhara, corresponding to the ten levels of realization of the Sutrayana and the state of Buddhahood. They are (1) the Vidyadhara with residues, (2) the Vidyadhara with power over life, (3) the Mahamudra Vidyadhara, (4) the Spontaneous Vidyadhara. [LLB, 2002]
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No
rgyal ba
jina, jinaḥ
conqueror, victorious one
vainqueur
vitorioso, conquistador
Vittorioso
victorioso, conquistador
A buddha. [WOMPT, 1998] A general epithet for a Buddha. [TPQ, 2010] [TLWF, 2011] [NLF, 2005] Also called conqueror. A general epithet for a buddha, one who has won victory over all negative forces.[OMS, 2018] Also translated as victorious one. A general epithet for a buddha, one who has conquered the four demons. [NS] Also translated as conqueror. A general epithet for a buddha, one who has won victory over the four demons. [NS]
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No
rdo rje'i theg pa , rdo rje theg pa
vajrayāna
Vajrayana, diamond vehicle, adamantine vehicle, Mantrayana.
véhicule adamantin*, Vajrayana, Véhicule de Diamant (des Mantras Secrets)
Vajrayāna (o), Veículo de Diamante
vajrayāna, veicolo admantino,
Vajrayāna, Vehículo Adamantino
The vehicle based on realization of the diamondlike nature of the mind. Synonymous with Secret Mantra Vehicle. [TLWF, 2011] The corpus of teachings and practices based on the tantras, scriptures that discourse upon the primordial purity of the mind. [CMH, 2001] See also Expository vehicle of causality. [TPQ, 2010] Diamond Vehicle. Corpus of teachings and practices based on the tantras, scriptures that discourse upon the primordial purity of the mind. It is the vehicle of result, as opposed to the causal vehicle of Shravakas and Bodhisattvas. Synonym of Mantrayana. [LLB, 2002] See Vajrayana. [CMH, 2001] See resultant vehicle. [WL, 2012] Also called Secret Mantrayāna (Secret Mantra Vehicle). A branch of the Great Vehicle that uses the special techniques of the tantras, based on the realization of the diamond-like nature of the mind and taking the result as the path, to pursue enlightenment for the sake of all beings more rapidly. [NS] see Diamond Vehicle. [NS]
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No
rdo rje sems dpa'
vajrasattva
Vajrasattva
Vajrasattva
Vajrasattva
Vajrasattva
Vajrasattva
The buddha who embodies the Hundred Families. The practice of Vajrasattva and recitation of his mantra are particularly effective for purifying negative actions. In the lineage of the Great Perfection he is the saṃbhogakāya buddha. [WOMPT, 1998] The Buddha who embodies the forty-two peaceful and fifty-eight wrathful deities. The practice of Vajrasattva and recitation of his mantra are particularly effective for purifying negative actions. In the lineage of the Great Perfection he is the Sambhogakaya Buddha. [ZT, 2006] Lit., Indestructible Being. The Buddha of the Vajra Family, corresponding to the mirror-like wisdom that is the pure nature of the aggregate of consciousness and affliction of aversion, and is linked with the enlightened activity of pacifying. [LLB, 2002] Generally speaking, the sambhogakaya buddha of the vajra family. meditation on Vajrasattva is a powerful method for the purification of defilements. In the Nyingma tradition, moreover, Vajrasattva is considered to be the sovereign of the yidam deities; his mantra "contains" the mantras of all deities. [CMH, 2001] “Diamond Being” or “Diamond Hero.” In the Diamond Vehicle, the deity most widely practiced for purification. [NS] [TLWF, 2011]
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No
rdo rje phur ba
vajrakila
Vajrakila
Vajrakila, Vajrakilaya
Vajrakila, Vajrakilaya
The principal yidam of the Nyingma school. Vajrakila or Vajrakilaya is a wrathful manifestion of Vajrasattva. [LLB 2002]
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No
gtum mo
caṇḍālī, caṇḍālikā, caṇḍī
tummo
Ardente, embrasement du feu intérieur*, flamme ardente*, chaṅḍālī*, embrasement intérieur*, chaleur interne*
tummo, caṇḍālī
tummo, caṇḍālī
Inner heat generated in the course of a certain yogic practice of the same name, belonging to the level of Anuyoga. [LLB, 2002]
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No
sprul pa'i sku / sprul sku
nirmāṇakāya
Nirmanakaya, body of manifestation, emanated body, tulku
corps de manifestation, corps d'apparition, corps d'émanation*, corps métamorphique
nirmāṇakāya (o), corpo de manifestação; emanação, reencarnação, tulku
nirmaṇakāya, tulku
nirmāṇakāya, cuerpo de manifestación, emanación, reencarnación
Lit "Body of manifestation", the aspect of Buddhahood which manifests out of compassion to help ordinary beings. [WOMPT, 1998] [ZT, 2006][NS] The aspect of Buddhahood that manifests out of compassion to help ordinary beings. [TLWF,2011] As tulku: the Tibetan translation of the Skt. nirmanakāya, also used as an honorific title and general term for recognized incarnations of lamas, who are found, usually in childhood, and brought up to inherit the lineage and often the monastic foundations of their predecessors. [WOMPT, 1998] See Trikaya [LLB, 2002] The manifestation body, the aspect of compassion and means, whereby a Buddha may be perceived by unenlightened beings and therefore can communicate with and help them. [TEPTE, 1996] See kaya. [WL, 2012] The aspect of buddhahood that manifests out of compassion in all sorts of forms to help ordinary beings. [OMS, 2018]
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No
rtsa rlung
nādī-vāyu
Canaux et énergies
canais e energias
canales y energías
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No
sde snod gsum
tripiṭaka
three piṭakas, baskets, three collections.
triple collection*, Trois Corbeilles
três piṭakas, três cestos
Tripiṭaka
tres piṭakas, tres cestos
The three collections of the Buddha's teachings, Vinaya, Sūtra and Abhidharma. The Vajrayāna teachings are sometimes considered as a fourth piṭaka. Tripiṭaka means "the three baskets," so called because the palm-leaf folios on which the scriptures were originally written were collected and stored in baskets. [WOMPT, 1998] The Three Collections of the words of the Buddha (Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma). They were compiled at the first council held shortly after the parinirvāṇa of the Lord Buddha in the Nyagrodha cave at Rājagṛha under the aegis of King Ajātaśatru. Ananda recited from memory all the Buddha's sutric teachings, Kāśyapa all his metaphysical teachings, and Upāli all the rules of ethical discipline. The collection was supplemented and completed at the third council held at the behest of King Kaniṣka. [TPQ, 2010] The three collections of the Buddha’s teachings: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. The Vajrayana teachings are sometimes considered as a fourth pitaka. See also pitaka. [ZT, 2006] The Vinaya Collection, Sūtra Collection, and Abhidharma Collection. See also collection.[OMS, 2018]
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No
dkon mchog gsum
triratna
three jewels, three gems
les Trois Joyaux, les Trois Rares et Sublimes*, Trois(Rares et Sublimes)Joyaux, Trois Rares et Suprêmes Joyaux
Três Joias
tre gioielli
Tres Joyas
The Buddha, the Dharma and the Saṅgha. [WOMPT, 1998] Collectively, the object of refuge of all Buddhists. The Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. [TLWF, 2011][OMS, 2018][NS] The Triple Gem of Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha; the object of Buddhist refuge. [TPQ, 2010] The Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. [NLF, 2005] [ZT, 2006] The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Spiritual Community (Sangha), in which a Buddhist takes refuge. [LLB, 2002] The Buddha, the Doctrine (Dharma) and the Assembly of disciples and practitioners (Sangha). These are the three objects of refuge. [TEPTE, 1996]
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No
khregs chod
trekchö, cutting through, cutting through resistence
trekchö, Threkcheu
Trekchö (o), "Cortar a Resistência"
trekchö
See thögal. [WL, 2012]
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No
thod rgal , (lhun grub) thod rgal
thögal, direct crossing, leap over, all-surpassing realization, overstepping, surpassing
thögal , Franchissement direct (dans la présence spontanée)
Thögal, "Salto Direto"
thögal, cruce directo
A practice of the Great Perfection that focuses on the spontaneously present “clarity aspect” of ultimate reality. By contrast, trekchö focuses on the aspect of primordial purity. [WL 2010]
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No
gter ston
tertön, treasure revealer
Terteun, Révélateur de trésors
tertön (o), revelador de tesouro
scopritore di tesori, tertön
tertön, descubridor de tesoros, revelador de tesoros
lit. treasure-revealer. Reincarnations of the accomplished disciples of Guru Padmasambhava, who discover and reveal the spiritual treasures concealed by him and his consort Yeshe Tsogyal. [WL, 2012]
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No
gter ma ; gter ; gter chos
nidhānam
terma, treasure, hidden treasure
Trésor, Trésor (révélés)
terma, tesouro revelado
terma, tesoro spirituale
terma, tesoros espirituales, tesoro revelado
Teachings, with statues and other objects, that were hidden by Padmasambhava, Yeshe Tsogyal and others in earth, rocks, lakes and trees, or even in more subtle locations such as space or mind for the sake of future generations, and then rediscovered in miraculous ways by incarnations of Padmasambhava's disciples, the treasure discoverers. Teachings that were hidden, along with statues and other objects, by Padmasambhava, Yeshe Tsogyal, and others in earth, rocks, lakes, and trees, or even in more subtle locations such as space or mind for the sake of future generations, and then rediscovered in miraculous ways by incarnations of Padmasambhava’s disciples, the treasure discoverers. [TLWF, 2011] These are teachings and sacred objects concealed mainly by Guru Padmasambhava, to be revealed later, at a time when they would be more beneficial for the world and its inhabitants. Guru Rinpoche concealed such treasures in the deepest recesses of the minds of his disciples, who were themselves practitioners of great accomplishment. In addition, although not in every case, the bestowal of these treasure teachings was accompanied by the creation of certain physical objects, often scrolls of yellow paper carrying the symbolic letters of the ḍākinīs , or other writing (sometimes a few words, sometimes entire texts). These texts, together with other items, were entrusted for protection to the ḍākinīs or Dharma protectors and were concealed, not in the ordinary sense, but within the very nature of the elements. According to the inconceivable workings of interdependence, when the appropriate historical period arrives, the disciples to whom a specific teaching was bestowed appear in the world and proceed to unfold the treasure teachings. In this they are often prompted by the discovery of the items just referred to, or else they spontaneously recollect the teaching received many centuries before from the mouth of the guru. The collection of terma is enormous and forms one of the main sources of teaching and practice of the Nyingma school. [TPQ, 2010] See Treasure [LLB, 2002] Teachings and sacred objects concealed by Guru Rinpoche and other enlightened beings, to be revealed later, at a time when they would be most beneficial. The Terma teachings are composed in the symbolic letters of the dakinis, or other writing, and consist sometimes of a few words, sometimes of an entire text. The Treasures were concealed in the nature of the elements-water, rocks, etc. - or in the minds of the disciples. When they were with Guru Rinpoche, these disciples fully realized the meaning of these teachings and are for this reason the only ones who can rediscover them in the course of subsequent incarnations. The purpose of the symbolic script is in fact to awaken in the tertön's mind the memory of the teaching entrusted to him or her by Guru Rinpoche. [LLB, 2002] lit. treasure. Teachings and blessed substances concealed principally by Guru Padmasambhava, to be revealed later, at a time when they would be more beneficial for the world and its inhabitants. [WL, 2010]
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No
grub thob
siddha, siddhaḥ
siddha
Siddha
siddha
siddha
siddha
lit. one who has attained the accomplishments. Someone who has attained the fruit of the practice of the Secret Mantrayāna. [WOMPT, 1998] [ZT, 2006] Someone who has attained the fruit of the practice of the Secret Mantra Vehicle. [TLWF, 2011][NS] One who has gained siddhi or accomplishment through the practice of the Vajrayāna. [TPQ, 2010] [LLB, 2002]
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No
zhi gnas
śamatha, śamathaḥ
calm abiding, sustained calm, quiescence, tranquility, Shamatha
calme mental, calme continu*, quiétude, pacification mentale*, śamatha*, pacification stable*
śamatha, paz mental, permanecer em paz, calmo permanecer.
calma mentale (pratica della)
calma mental, śamatha,
The basis of all concentrations. "The distraction of the mind by other objects having been calmed (zhi), the mind stays (gnas) without wavering in concentration." DICT. [WOMPT, 1998] The basis of all concentrations, a calm, undistracted state of unwavering concentration. [TLWF, 2011] [NLF, 2005] [ZT, 2006][OMS, 2018] Essentially a concentration in which the mind remains unmoving on an object of focus. It is a state of calm abiding which though of great importance is itself incapable of overcoming ignorance and the conception of a self. See also Vipaśyanā. [TPQ, 2010] A calm, undistracted state of unwavering concentration, the basis of all concentrations. [NS]
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No
'gro ba rigs drug, 'gro drug , 'gro lnga
ṣadgati
six realms, six realms of existence
six classes d'êtres, êtres des six mondes, six destinées, classes d'êtres (cinq / six), états d’existence (cinq / six), six formes d'existence, six sphères d'existence, six mondes
seis classes de seres, seis reinos, cinco classes de seres, cinco reinos
sei regni (dell'esistenza),
seis clases de seres, seis reinos de existencia, cinco clases de seres, cinco reinos de existencia
Six modes of existence caused and dominated by a particular mental poison: the realms of hells (anger), of pretas (miserliness), of animals (bewilderment or ignorance), of humans (desire), of demigods or asuras (jealousy), and of gods (pride). They correspond to deluded perceptions produced by beings' karma and apprehended as real. [TLWF, 2011] One also speaks of five realms ('gro lnga, Skt. pañcagati), counting gods and demigods together as one realm. Six modes of existence produced by specific karmas and apprehended as real. They are all equal in being merely perceptions of the deluded mind and lacking inherent existence. In ascending order they are the realms of hell, produced by hatred; pretas, brought about by extreme miserliness; of animals, provoked by stupidity; of humans, produced by desire; of asuras, by intense envy; and of gods, due to actions concomitant with pride. [TPQ, 2010] Six modes of existence caused and dominated by particular mental poisons: the hells (anger), and the realms of the pretas (miserliness), animals (bewilderment or ignorance), humans (desire), asuras (jealousy), and gods (pride). These correspond to deluded perceptions produced by beings’ karma and apprehended as real. [ZT, 2006] The experience of beings in samsara is traditionally schematized into six general categories, referred to as realms or worlds, in which the mind abides as the result of previous actions or karma. None of these states is satisfactory, though the degree of suffering in them differs from one to another. The three upper or fortunate realms, where suffering is alleviated by temporary pleasures, are the heavens of the mundane gods, the realms of the asuras or demigods, and the world of human beings. The three lower realms, in which suffering predominates over every other experience, are those of the animals, the hungry ghosts, and the hells. [TEPTE, 1996] Six modes of existence caused and dominated by a particular mental poison: the hells (anger or aversion), the hungry spirits realm (miserliness), animal realm (bewilderment or ignorance), human realm (desire), demigod realm (jealousy), and god realm (pride). These correspond to the deluded perceptions that are produced by beings’ past actions and that are apprehended as real. [NS]
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No
dam tshig
samaya
samaya, promisse, oath, sacred promiss, sacred oath, sacred precept, sacred bond
samaya, lien sacré, engagement*, promesse*, samaya*
samaya (o), vínculo, compromisso, promessa
samaya, vincolo sacro
samaya, vínculo, compromiso, promesa
Sacred links between teacher and disciple, and also between disciples, in the Vajrayāna. The Sanskrit word samaya can mean: agreement, engagement, convention, precept, boundary, etc. Although there are many detailed obligations, the most essential samaya is to consider the teacher's body, speech and mind as pure. [WOMPT, 1998] [ZT, 2006] lit. “promise.” The sacred link between master and disciple, and also between disciples, in the Diamond Vehicle. The Sanskrit word samaya can mean: agreement, engagement, convention, precept, boundary, etc. Although there are many detailed obligations, the most essential commitment on the part of the disciple is to consider the teacher’s body, speech and mind as pure. [TLWF, 2011][NS] The sacramental bond and commitment in the Vajrayāna established between the master and the disciples on whom empowerment is conferred. The samaya bond exists also between the disciples of the same master and between disciples and their practice. [TPQ, 2010] [CMH, 2001] The sacramental bond and commitment in the Vajrayana established between the master and the disciple to whom he or she gives empowerment. Samaya also refers to the sacred links between the disciples of the same master and between the disciples and their practice.[LLB, 2002] [WL, 2012] See sacred commitments. [NS]
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No
ting nge 'dzin
samādhi
samādhi, absorption, concentration, contemplation
recueillement*, absorption méditative (voir glossaire d'énumérations), concentration profonde*, absorptions*, concentration, stabilisation méditative*, samadhi, recueillement (profond) – de concentration / d'extase
samādhi (o), absorção meditativa
samādhi, raccoglimento meditativo, meditazione profonda
samādhi, absorción meditativa
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No
ris med
non sectarian, ecumenical
non sectaire (mouvement), Œcuménique (école)
não sectário, movimento rime (ou rimê)
Rimé, movimento Rimé
movimiento no sectario, movimiento rimê
Spiritual movement made famous by the great lama Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo as well as Jamgön Köngtrul Lodrö Thaye, Lama Mipham, Chogyur Lingpa and Patrol Rinpoche. It is characterized by an attitude of respect for all the teachings and schools of Buddhism. [WOMPT, 1998]
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No
rlung
prāṇa (vāyu)
energy, vital energy, subtle energy, wind, breath, prana, energy, wind-energy, vital-energy, subtle-energy, psychic energy, subtle wind
souffles, vents, énergies subtiles, souffle*, air (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*, souffle, vent*, énergie, souffles principaux*, prana*, souffle subtil*, vent d'énergie subtile*
prāṇa (o), energia subtil, vento
energie (sottili) o venti
prāṇa, energía sutil, viento, energía vital, energía psíquica, viento sutil
1) Its characteristic is to be "light and mobile." The mind is described as riding on the rlung like a rider on a horse. Five different types of rlung regulate the functions of the body: i) the ascending energy (gyen rgyu), ii) the energy of evacuation (thur sel), iii) the fiery energy (me mnyam), iv) all-pervading energy (khyab byed) and v) the life-supporting energy (srog 'dzin)) 2) One of the three humours according to Tibetan medicine. See also bile, phlegm. [WOMPT, 1998] A psychophysical component that circulates in the subtle channels of the body and acts as the support of the mind. In ordinary beings the wind energy is impure. It is called karmic energy (las kyi rlung) because it is contaminated by karma. When purified, however, it becomes wisdom energy (ye shes kyi rlung). [TPQ, 2010] Lit. “wind,” being described as “light and mobile”: any one of a number of subtle energies that regulate the functions of the body and influence the mind, which is said to ride or be carried on the rlung like a rider on a horse. Mastery of these subtle energies in the perfection phase greatly enhances the practitioner’s realization. See also channels and energies. [ZT, 2006] Subtle energies circulating in the subtle channels of the body and acting as the vehicle of the essence- drops, the support of the mind. [LLB, 2002]
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No
shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa
prajñāpāramitā
prajñāpāramitā.
Connaissance transcendante
Prajñāpāramitā
Prajñāpāramitā
(1) The paramita of transcendent wisdom, the knowledge of emptiness; (2) the collection of sutras belonging to the second turning of the Dharma wheel and expounding the doctrine of śūnyatā, the emptiness of phenomena. [TPQ, 2010] Transcendent knowledge, direct realization of emptiness, and thus the Mother of all the Buddhas. Referred to also as wisdom that has gone beyond. [LLB, 2002]
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No
mtha' brgyad
eight extremes
huit extrêmes (ou limites) du jugement
oito extremos
Phenomena are beyond the extremes of cessation and origin; they are not annihilated and they are not permanent; they do not come and they do not go; they are not distinct and they are not one. Parallel with this, they are like dreams, illusions, mirages, reflections, optical illusions, echoes, castles in the clouds, and magical displays. These eight similes illustrate the indivisibility of the absolute and relative truths. [TPQ, 2010]
25/05/2022
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No
gzugs sku , gzugs kyi sku
rūpakāya , rūpakāyaḥ, buddhakāyaviśeṣaḥ
Rupakaya, form body, body of form
corps formel, corps de forme*, rūpakāya*
rūpakāya (o), kāya da forma, Corpo da Forma, corpo-forma.
rūpakāya
rūpakāya, kāya de la forma, Cuerpo de la Forma
Body of Form, which includes the sambhogakāya and nirmāṇakāya together. [WOMPT, 1998] [ZT, 2006] See Kaya. [IMW, 2004] The body of form comprises the body of perfect enjoyment and the body of manifestation together. [TLWF, 2011] Form body. See Kaya. [CMH, 2001] The body of perfect enjoyment and the body of manifestation considered together. [NS]
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No
rten 'brel yan lag bcu gnyis , rten 'brel bcu gnyis
pratītyasamutpāda, dvādaṡāṅga pratītyasamutpāda
twelve links of dependent arising
douze facteurs de la production interdépendante
doze elos da originação dependente
A fundamental element of Buddhist teaching according to which phenomena are understood not as discretely existent entities, but as the coincidence of interdependent conditions. The classic formulation of this doctrine is found in the teaching on the twelve links of dependent arising, which, together with the four noble truths, constitutes the teachings of the first turning of the wheel of Dharma. This fundamental exposition, given by the Buddha at Sarnath shortly after his enlightenment, expresses the doctrines of the Hīnayāna. The doctrine of interdependence is, however, pervasive and is formulated variously according to different levels of teaching. Most importantly, it was interpreted by Nāgārjuna as the essential meaning of śūnyatā, or emptiness, the ultimate nature of phenomena. [TPQ, 2010] The twelve factors or stages through which the process of birth and rebirth in cyclic existence takes place. They are ignorance, conditioning factors, consciousness, name-and-form, the sense powers, contact, feeling, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, and aging-and-death. [OMS, 2018]
24/05/2022
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No
ngo bo
svabhāva
essence, essential nature, nature
essence, identité, nature (parfois = ce que la chose est, donc pas toujours besoin de traduire), nature propre*, essence*, la chose même*, nature en soi*, essence/nature essentielle
natureza essencial, essência, natureza
24/05/2022
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No
nyon yid , nyon mongs pa can gyi yid་, nyon yid rnam shes , nyon mongs pa can gyi yid kyi rnam par shes pa
kliṣṭamana, kleśamanas, kliṣṭamanaḥ , kleṡavijñгna
defiled emotional consciousness
esprit affecté*, mental affligé*, mental souillé (affligé ou émotionnel):
consciência emocional, consciência mental dotada de emoções negativas
See eight consciousnesses [TPQ, 2010]
24/05/2022
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No
gi wang
gorocanā
bezoar
bezoar
A concretion found in the stomachs or entrails of certain animals and which is endowed with medicinal properties. [TPQ, 2010]
24/05/2022
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No
skyes bu chen po
mahāpuruṣaḥ
beings of great scope
grand être
ser de grande capacidade, grande ser
Practitioners of the Mahāyāna teachings who, out of compassion, aspire to buddhahood in order to help beings in the immediate term and to lead them ultimately to enlightenment. [TPQ, 2010]
24/05/2022
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No
bsnyen pa
sevā
approach, accomplishment, and activation
approche
aproximação
First of three consecutive stages in the practice of a sādhana. In the first stage the practitioner becomes familiar with the figure and mandala of the meditational deity. In the second stage, the deity is "accomplished," and in the third, different enlightened activities are practiced.
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No
dag pa gnyis
twofold purity
double pureté, deux puretés
pureza dupla, duas purezas
La purezza originale (rang bzhin ye dag), che è la natura di buddha propria a tutti gli esseri, e la purezza da macchie avventizie (blo bur ’phral dag), che si consegue con la pratica ed è propria ai buddha solamente.
doble pureza
(1) The original natural purity of the mind, present in the minds of all sentient beings (rang bzhin ye dag), and (2) the purity from all adventitious stains (glo bur 'phral dag), which is the result of the path and is the preserve of buddhas only. [TPQ, 2010] Original purity (rang bzhin ye dag), which is the buddha nature present in all beings, and the purity from all adventitious stains (Tib. blo bur ’phral dag), which is the result of practicing the path. Only a buddha has this second purity. [NS]
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No
glo bur gyi dri ma , glo bur dri ma
āgantuka-mala
adventitious veil, adventitious stain
adventices (souillures)* , Impuretés adventices
máculas adventícias
Impermanent emotional and cognitive obscurations that afflict the mind but which, not being intrinsic to its nature, can be removed from it. See Two obscurations; Twofold purity. [TPQ, 2010]
24/05/2022
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No
don gyi ye shes
absolute wisdom
sagesse primordiale/absolue*, sagesse primordiale "sens"/signifiée*
sabedoria do absoluto, sabedoria absoluta
Primordial knowledge, divested of the dualistic mental activity characteristic of the ordinary mind, which "sees" (nondualistically) the ultimate reality or absolute truth. [TPQ, 2010]
24/05/2022
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No
spros bral, spros pa dang bral ba
niḥpra­pañca
absence of conceptual constructs
libre de discursivité*, séparation des élaborations conceptuelles*, absence d'élaboration conceptuelle/ de prolifération discursive*, absence d'élaboration*, dénué de proliférations discursives (en terme d'être et de non-être)*, libre de construction(s) mentale(s) (ou absence de ~)
livre de elaborações conceptuais (pt) / conceituais (br)
This expression is used to refer to the fact that phenomena, in their true nature, are "empty," or beyond the four possible ontological positions: they cannot be said to exist; they cannot be said not to exist; they cannot be said both to exist and not to exist; and they cannot be said neither to exist nor not to exist. [TPQ, 2010]
24/05/2022
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No
phur ba , phur bu
kīla
Kīla, phurba
Kíla
kīla, phurba
kīla, phurba,
kīla
Wrathful deity, the activity aspect of all the buddhas, a manifestation ofVajrasattva. Practice related to this deity is based on the four aspects of Kīla, those of the ritual object, compassion, Bodhicitta and awareness-wisdom. [WOMPT, 1998] A ritual implement somewhat resembling a dagger or peg. Also the Tibetan name of the yidam Vajrakila or Vajrakumara. [LLB, 2002]
23/05/2022
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No
'pho ba
saṅkrāmati
phowa, transference of consiousness
phowa, transfert
transferência, phowa, transferência de consciência
trasferimento
transferencia, phowa
1) passing from one place to another, transmigrating (after death). 2) practice for directing the transference of consciousness at the time of death. [WOMPT, 1998]
23/05/2022
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No
pha rol tu phyin pa
pāramitā
pāramitā, transcendent perfection, transcendence, perfection
perfection*, vertu transcendante, pāramitā*, perfection transcendante*, six (ou dix) vertus transcendantes
pāramitā, virtude transcendente, perfeição transcendente
perfezione trascendente
pāramitā, perfección trascendental
The six methods of training in the bodhicitta of application. They are transcendent because they are accompanied by the wisdom of emptiness. See also six transcendent perfections. [WOMPT, 1998] A transcendent perfection or virtue, the practice of which leads to buddhahood and which therefore forms the practice of bodhisattvas. There are six pāramitās: generosity, ethical discipline, patience, diligence, concentration, and wisdom. According to another reckoning there are ten pāramitās, these six with the addition of a further four, regarded as aspects of the wisdom pāramitā. They are: skillful means, strength, aspiration, and primordial wisdom. [TPQ, 2010] A term used to describe the practice of a Bodhisattva, combining skillful means and wisdom, the compassionate motivation of attaining enlightenment for the sake of all beings, and the view of emptiness. See six and ten transcendent perfections. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] See perfections [LLB, 2002] These represent the fundamental practices of the Mahayana path. The six are Generosity, Ethical Discipline, Patience, Diligence, Concentration, and Wisdom. The ten consist of the six just mentioned but with the last perfection of wisdom broken down into the aspects of Means (thabs), Strength (stobs), Aspiration (smon lam), and Primordial Wisdom (ye shes). They are called transcendent because, in conjunction with wisdom, they lead beyond samsara. [LLB, 2002] A transcendent perfection or virtue, the practice of which leads to Buddhahood. There are six paramitas: generosity, ethical discipline, patience, diligence, concentration, and wisdom. [WL, 2012] The principal practice of a bodhisattva, combining skillful means and wisdom, the compassionate motivation of attaining enlightenment for the sake of all beings and the view of emptiness. See six and ten transcendent perfections.[OMS, 2018]
23/05/2022
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No
mkhas pa , paN Di ta , paN+Di ta
paṇḍita
paṇḍita
paṇḍita
paṇḍita
paṇḍita
paṇḍita
A scholar, someone learned in the five traditional sciences (see: five sciences). Particularly used to refer to Indian scholars. [WOMPT, 1998] A scholar, someone learned in the five traditional sciences (crafts, medicine, philology, logic, and philosophy). The term is used to refer primarily to Indian scholars. [TLWF, 2011][NS] A scholar, someone learned in the five traditional sciences (crafts, medicine, philology, logic, and philosophy). The term is particularly used to refer to Indian scholars. [ZT, 2006] A scholar, someone learned in the five traditional sciences. See five sciences [LLB, 2002]
23/05/2022
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No
pad ma 'byung gnas
padmasambhava, padmakara
Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava, Né du Lotus
Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava, Nacido del Loto
The Lotus-Born Teacher from Uḍḍiyāna, often known as Guru Rinpoche. During the reign of King Trisong Detsen in the eighth century, this great master subjugated the evil forces hostile to the propagation of Buddhism in Tibet, spread the Buddhist teaching of the Diamond Vehicle in that country, and hid innumerable spiritual treasures for the benefit of future generations. He is venerated as the Second Buddha, whose coming was predicted by the first one, Buddha Shākyamuni, to give the special teachings of the Diamond Vehicle. [NS]
23/05/2022
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No
rnying ma , nying ma pa, snga 'gyur rnying ma, snga 'gyur snying ma, gsang sngags snga 'gyur
nyingma, ancient tradition, old translation school, the old school, ancient translation school.
première école de traduction, Nyingma, Tradition ancienne, Ancienne Traduction (école de l'~)
Nyingma, Escola das Antigas Traduções, Antiga Tradição, nyingmapa
antica tradizione, tradizione Nyingmapa
Nyingma o Nyingmapa, Tradición Antigua, Escuela de traducción antigua
The followers of the first teachings of Secret Mantra propagated in Tibet by the great master Padmasambhava in the 8th century. Patrul Rinpoche belonged to this school. [WOMPT, 1998] Referred to also as the Nyingma or Ancient school, the original tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. Its adherents study and practice the tantras (and their related teachings) that were translated in the first period between the introduction of the Buddhadharma to Tibet in the eighth century and the period of New Translation inaugurated by Rinchen Zangpo (958-1051). [TPQ, 2010] See Ancient Translation school. [TPQ, 2010] The followers of the first teachings of the Secret Mantrayana propagated in Tibet by the great masters Vimalamitra and Padmasambhava in the eighth century. [ZT, 2006][NS] See Ancient Tradition [ZT, 2006] The ancient tradition. The first and mother school of Tibetan Buddhism, so called in contrast with the subsequent schools founded at a later date. [LLB, 2002] The earliest school of Tibetan Buddhism, founded in the eighth century by the Guru Padmasambhava. [TEPTE, 1996] See Old tradition. [WL, 2012] The original tradition of Buddhist teaching in Tibet dating from the eighth century, sometimes referred to as the Old Translation School, so-called in contrast with the schools of the New Translation tradition, founded from the twelfth century onward. [WL, 2012]
23/05/2022
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No
grub chen, grub thob chen po, grub pa chen po
mahāsiddha, mahāsiddhiḥ
mahāsiddha, great accomplished one
mahasiddha, grand sage, être réalisé, grand accompli*, Grand maître accompli
mahāsiddha, ser altamente realizado
mahāsiddha
ser realizado, mahāsiddha
A yogi who has reached the supreme accomplishment. [WOMPT, 1998] See Siddha [LLB, 2002]
23/05/2022
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Yes
sangs rgyas
buddha
buddha
bouddha
buda, buddha
buddha
buda, buddha
budda
"One who has dispelled (sangs) the darkness of the two obscurations and developed (rgyas) the two kinds of omniscience (knowing the nature of phenomena and knowing the multiplicity of phenomena)." DICT. [WOMPT, 1998][OMS, 2018][NS] The Fully Awakened One, a being who has removed the emotional and cognitive veils and is endowed with all enlightened qualities of realization. [TPQ, 2010] [CMH, 2001] One who has dispelled (Tib. sangs) the darkness of the two obscurations and developed (Tib. rgyas) the two kinds of omniscience (knowing the nature of phenomena and knowing the multiplicity of phenomena). [TLWF, 2011] One who has awoken from the deep sleep of ignorance and whose mind has blossomed with the knowledge of all things. According to the Mahayana perspective, there are innumerable Buddhas, the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, being a single example. . [LLB, 2002] One who has removed the two veils (the veil of afflictive emotions, which is the cause of suffering, and the veil of ignorance, which is the obstacle to omniscience) and who has brought to perfection the two sorts of knowledge (of the ultimate and relative nature of phenomena). [TEPTE,1996]
19/05/2022
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Yes
mchod pa'i lha mo brgyad
eight offering goddesses
oito deusas de oferendas
Otto dee delle offerte
Ocho diosas de las ofrendas
The Lady of Beauty (sgeg mo ma, Skt. Lāsyā), the Lady of Garlands (phreng ba ma, Mālā), the Lady of Song (glu ma, Gītā), the Lady of Dance (gar ma, Nṛtyā), the Lady of Flowers (me tog ma, Puṣpā), the Lady of Incense (bdug spos ma, Dhūpā), The Lady of Lamps (snang gsa/ ma, Ālokā) and the Lady of Perfume (dri chab ma, Gandhā). In the maṇḍala of the peaceful sambhogakāya deities, they are also the consortss of the eight Bodhisattvas (see Eight Great Close Sons), and symbolize, respectively, the pure state of the four objects of the sense organs (form, smell, sound and taste) and of the four aspects of thoughts (past, present, future and of undetermined time). [WOMPT]
19/05/2022
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No
blo sbyong
entraînement de l'esprit
treino da mente, treinamento da mente
entrenamiento de la mente
12/05/2022
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No
bka' ma
khama
Kahma
khama
khama
Name of the long oral lineage of transmission of the teachings from the Buddha down to the disciples of the present day. [WL 2012]
10/05/2022
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No
bka' 'gyur
Kangyur
Kangyur
Kangyur
Kangyur
The Tibetan translations of the original canonical works that recorded the Buddha’s teachings of the Tripitaka and the tantras. The Kangyur comprises a collection of more than one hundred volumes. [ZT 2006] The collection of 108 volumes containing the canon of Buddhist scriptures embodying the teachings of the Buddha Shakyamuni. [LLB 2002]
10/05/2022
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No
dge lugs , dge lugs pa
Gelugpa
Guélouk
Gelug, Gelugpa
Gelugpa
Gelugpa
One of the schools of the New Tradition, founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) and at first called the Gandenpa after his seat, the monastery of Ganden. [WOMPT, 1998] One of the New Translation schools, founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). Its head is the Throne Holder of Ganden Monastery, and its most illustrious member is His Holiness the Dalai Lama. [FB] One of the New Translation schools, founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), whose head is the Throne-Holder of Ganden and whose most illustrious member is His Holiness the Dalai Lama. [TPQ, 2010] One of the schools of the New Tradition, founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). [ZT, 2006]
10/05/2022
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No
mchod rten
stūpa, caitya
stūpa
stoûpa, Stupa, mémorial
stūpa, caitya
stūpa
estupa
lit. support of offering. A symbolic representation of the Buddha's mind. The most typical Buddhist monument, which often has a wide square base, a rounded mid-section, and a tall conical upper section topped by a sun and moon. Stūpa frequently contain the relics of enlightened beings. They vary in size from tiny clay models to the vast stūpas at Borobodur in Indonesia and Bodha in Nepal. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006][NS] lit. support of offering. Symbolic representation of the Buddha's enlightenment. Stupas, perhaps the most typical of Buddhist monuments, are to be found in a variety of forms all over the Buddhist world. They often contain the relics of enlightened beings and are objects of great reverence. [TPQ, 2010] Lit., support of offerings. Symbolic representation of the Buddha's mind. The most typical Buddhist monument, frequently containing the relics of enlightened beings and varying in size. It often has a square base, a rounded midsection, and a tall conical upper section topped by a sun and moon. [LLB, 2002]
10/05/2022
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No
'jam dpal, 'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa, 'jam dbyangs, 'jam dpal dbyangs, 'jam pa'i dpal, 'jam pa'i dbyangs
mañjuśrī, mañjuśrī­kumāra­bhūta, mañjughoṣa
Mañjuśrī
Mañjushrî, Mañjuśrī (le Jeune -) où sont des idées de « prince héritier » et de « jeunesse éternelle », Mañjughosha
Mañjuśrī, Mañjuśrī-­kumāra­bhūta, Mañjughoṣa
Mañjuśrī, Mañjuśrī-­kumāra­bhūta, Mañjughoṣa
Mañjuśrī, Mañjuśrī-­kumāra­bhūta, Mañjughoṣa
A tenth level Bodhisattva. He embodies the knowledge and wisdom of all the buddhas. [WOMPT, 1998] The Bodhisattva who embodies the Buddhas’ knowledge and wisdom. [TLWF, 2011][OMS, 2018] A tenth-ground Bodhisattva, one of the eight Close Sons of the Buddha. He is the personification of the body aspect and the wisdom of all the Buddhas. See also Asaṅga; Nāgārjuna. [TPQ, 2010] A tenth-level Bodhisattva, one of Buddha Shakyamuni’s eight principal Bodhisattva disciples. He embodies the knowledge and wisdom of all the Buddhas and is usually depicted holding the sword of wisdom in his right hand and a book on a lotus in his left. [ZT, 2006] Name of a Bodhisattva personifying the wisdom of all the Buddhas. [LLB, 2002] A tenth-ground Bodhisattva and the personification of the wisdom of all the Buddhas. [WL, 2012]
09/05/2022
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No
rdo rje 'dzin , rdo rje 'dzin pa
vajradhara ; pavidhara
vajradhara, diamond holder, holder of the vajra.
détenteur du vajra
vajradhara, detentor do vajra ou diamante
vajradhara
vajradhara, detentor del vajra o diamante
One who holds the transmission and realization of the Diamond Vehicle. Vajradhara (“Diamond Bearer”) is also known by this name. [TLWF 2011] A title given to the holder of the three kinds of discipline or vow. [TPQ, 2010]
08/05/2022
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No
chags thogs
to be stuck on something, to be prevented from moving forward, attachment and impediment
-
chags: to be stuck on something; thogs: to be prevented from moving forward. [ZT, 2006, translator's notes] Attachment and impediment. See Two obscurations. [TPQ, 2010]
08/05/2022
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No
kun rdzob pa'i bden pa , kun rdzob bden pa , kun rdzob kyi bden pa
saṃvṛti-satya , saṃvṛtisatya
relative truth, the relative, all-concealing, deceptive appearance, conventional truth, the conventional
vérité relative, réalité superficielle*
verdade relativa, verdade convencional
verità relativa
verdad relativa, lo relativo, que todo lo oculta, apariencia engañosa, verdad convencional, lo convencional
The apparent truth perceived and taken as real by the deluded mind, [WOMPT, 1998]which conceals the true nature of things. Contrast ultimate truth. [NS] lit. all-concealing truth. This refers to phenomena in the ordinary sense, which, on the level of ordinary experience, are perceived as real and separate from the mind and which thus conceal their true nature. [TPQ, 2010] Lit. “all-concealing truth”: the apparent truth perceived and taken as real by the deluded mind, which conceals the true nature of phenomena. See also absolute truth. [ZT, 2006] lit. “all-concealing truth.” The apparent truth perceived and taken as real by the deluded mind, which conceals their true nature. See also ultimate truth.[OMS, 2018]
08/05/2022
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No
dmigs pa med pa , dmigs med , mi dmigs pa
anupalambha, anupalabdhi, nirālambana
sans-référence*, non référentiel, sans point de référence/d'observation/de concentration*, sans objet*, non-référence*, non-observation*, inconcevable*; inexistant*, introuvable
não-referencial, livre de referências
07/05/2022
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No
kar ma pa
Karmapa
Karmapa
Karmapa
Karmapa
Karmapa
Name of a series of great lamas of the Kagyupa school, whose lineage of reincarnations goes back to Dusum Khyenpa (1110- 1193). The Karmapas were the first tulkus recognised in Tibet. [WOMPT]
07/05/2022
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No
chos sku / chos kyi sku
dharmakāya
dharmakaya, absolute body, Dharma body, body of truth
corps absolu, corps de vérité*, état d'Éveil*
dharmakāya (o), corpo absoluto
dharmakāya, corpo assoluto,
dharmakāya
The emptiness aspect of Buddhahood. It can be translated as body of truth, absolute dimension. [WOMPT, 1998][NS] See Five Bodies. [TPQ, 2010] The emptiness aspect of Buddhahood; also translated as body of truth, absolute dimension. [TLWF, 2011] Lit. “Dharma body”: the emptiness aspect of Buddha- hood; also translated as “body of truth,” “absolute dimension.” [ZT, 2006] See Trikaya [LLB, 2002] See Kaya [CMH, 2001] lit. “Dharma body.” Also called absolute dimension. The emptiness aspect of buddhahood. [OMS, 2018] The absolute, or truth, body; the aspect of emptiness. [TEPTE, 1996] Literally the “dharma-body.” According to context, this refers simply to the dimension of emptiness of Buddhahood. Alternatively, it may indicate the union of emptiness and luminous primordial wisdom. [WL, 2012] See body of truth. [NS]
07/05/2022
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Yes
chos
dharma
dharma, teaching, phenomenon
Dharma, enseignement du Bouddha, phénomène*, Enseignement, Doctrine
Dharma [o], ensinamento, doutrina, qualidade, fator, dharma, fenómeno
dharma
Dharma, enseñanzas, verdad, doctrina, realidad, cualidad o dharma, fenómeno, etc.
dharma, nauka buddy, zjawisko
This term has a number of different meanings. In its widest sense it means all that can be known. In this text the term Dharma is used exclusively to indicate the teaching of the Buddha. It has two aspects: the Dharma of transmission (lung gi chos), namely the teachings which are actually given, and the Dharma of realization (rtogs pa'i chos), or the states of wisdom, etc., which are attained through the application of the teachings. It is often referred to as the "Sublime Dharma" because it liberates beings from suffering. Dharma or "chos" can also simply mean "phenomena." When it has this meaning it has been translated as such. [WOMPT, 1998] This Sanskrit term is the normal word used to indicate the Doctrine of the Buddha. In fact the term has ten meanings: Six apply to phenomena; four apply to the sacred Doctrine. The first six are: (1) phenomenon or knowledge object; (2) mental object; (3) life span; (4) future time; (5) certainty; and (6) religion (religious tradition). The four that apply to the sacred tradition are: (1) scriptures, or the Dharma of transmission; (2) meritorious action or skillful means, such as generosity; (3) the path or wisdom of understanding emptiness; and (4) nirvāṇa, or freedom of all that is to be abandoned." The Dharma of transmission refers to the corpus of verbal teachings, whether oral or written. The Dharma of realization refers to the spiritual qualities resulting from the practice of these teachings. [TPQ, 2010] This Sanskrit term is the normal word used to indicate the Doctrine of the Buddha. In fact the term has ten meanings (see note 82). The Dharma of transmission refers to the corpus of verbal teachings, whether oral or written. The Dharma of realization refers to the spiritual qualities resulting from the practice of these teachings. Note 82"There are ten meanings of the word ‘dharma' (chos). Six apply to phenomena; four apply to the sacred Doctrine. The first six are: (1) phenomenon or knowledge object; (2) mental object; (3) life span; (4) future time; (5) certainty; and (6) religion (religious tradition). The four that apply to the sacred tradition are: (1) scriptures, or the Dharma of transmission; (2) meritorious action or skillful means, such as generosity; (3) the path or wisdom of understanding emptiness; and (4) nirvana, or freedom of all that is to be abandoned." [YG I, 503] The Buddha’s doctrine; the teachings transmitted in the scriptures and the qualities of realization attained through their practice. Note that the Sanskrit word dharma has ten principal meanings, including “anything that can be known.” Vasubandhu defines the Dharma, in its Buddhist sense, as the “protective dharma” (chos skyobs): “It corrects (’chos) every one of the enemies, the afflictive emotions; and it protects (skyobs) us from the lower realms: these two characteristics are absent from other spiritual traditions.” [TLWF, 2011] [NLF, 2005] [ZT, 2006][OMS, 2018][NS] The Doctrine, or corpus of teachings given by the Buddha and other enlightened beings, which shows the path to Awakening. It has two aspects: the Dharma of transmission, namely the scriptures and teachings, and the Dharma of realization, the qualities resulting from the spiritual practice. [LLB, 2002] This Sanskrit term is most commonly used to indicate the doctrine of the Buddha. The term actually has ten meanings. The Dharma of transmission refers to the corpus of verbal teachings, whether oral or written. The Dharma of realization refers to the spiritual qualities resulting from practicing these teachings. [CMH, 2001] The body of teaching expounded by the Buddha Shakyamuni and other enlightened beings which shows the way to enlightenment. It comprises two aspects: the Dharma of transmission (lung gi chos), namely the teachings which are actually given, and the Dharma of realization (rtogs pa'i chos), or the states of wisdom, etc., which are attained through the application of the teachings. [TEPTE, 1996] The Sanskrit word dharma (Tib. chos) has a wide range of meanings, including: (to name only a few): a thing, phenomenon, characteristic, attribute, mental object, topic, teaching, scripture, religion, law, custom, usage. In this book “Dharma” (in uppercase) refers exclusively to the second of the Three Jewels, the Buddha's teaching and Buddhist path. [ZT, 2006, translator's notes]
07/05/2022
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No
yi dam ; yid dam; yi dam lha; yi dam (thugs dam)
iṣṭadevatā, devatā, iṣṭa-devatā, samādānatva, samādānatva
yidam deity, tutelary deity, divinity, yidam
déité (de méditation), divinité tutélaire, yidam, déité de méditation / de prédilection, divinité de méditation/déité préférée*, divinité de méditation/tutélaire*, Yidam, déité yidam
yidam, deidade yidam
yidam
yidam, deidad tutelar
A deity representing enlightenment, in a male or female, peaceful or wrathful form, that corresponds to the practitioner’s individual nature. The yidam is the source of accomplishments. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] A tantric deity, in male or female form, representing different aspects of enlightenment. Yidams may be peaceful or wrathful and are meditated upon according to the nature and needs of the individual practitioner. [TPQ, 2010] [CMH, 2001] [WL, 2012] A form of a Buddha used as a support in meditation in the Mantrayana. Such deities may be masculine or feminine, peaceful or wrathful, and are regarded as being inseparable from the mind of the meditator. [LLB, 2002] A form of a Buddha used as a support in visualization and meditation in the Mantrayana. Such deities may be masculine or feminine, peaceful or wrathful, regarded ultimately as being inseparable from the mind of the meditator. [TEPTE, 1996] A deity representing enlightenment, in a male or female, peaceful or wrathful, form and that corresponds to the practitioner’s individual nature. The yidam is the source of accomplishments. Yidam practice involves performing the deity’s sādhana and reciting its mantra.[NS]
07/05/2022
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No
'ja lus, 'ja' lus
rainbow body
Corps d'arc-en-ciel
corpo de arco íris
corpo d'arcobaleno
cuerpo de arcoíris
The rainbow body, synonymous with the diamond body (rdo rje sku), is the name given to the attainment of Buddhahood according to the practices of the Great Perfection of the Nyingma school. There are three kinds of rainbow body: the rainbow body so called ('ja lus), the radiant body ('od sku), and the rainbow body of great transference ('ja lus 'pho ba chen po). The first is attained through the practice of Trekchö. When someone accomplished in this practice dies, his or her body will be seen to emit rainbow light and diminish (often very considerably) in size. After about a week, if left undisturbed, the body will disappear completely, leaving behind only hair and finger- and toenails. Yogis have demonstrated this attainment well into modern times, indeed the present day. The Radiant Body is accomplished through a Dzogchen practice called thögal, and at death the body is transformed directly into light, leaving behind no remainder whatever. In the case of the rainbow body of great transference ('ja lus 'pho ba chen po), the accomplished practitioner trans- forms his physical body into an indestructible form composed of rainbow light and continues to live for centuries, remaining visible for as much this is of benefit for sentient beings. When there is no further purpose for such a manifestation, the practitioner dissolves his or her body into a radiant body and merges into the Primordial Ground. [LLB 2002]
07/05/2022
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No
rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba, rten 'byung, rten 'brel, rten 'brel 'byung ba
pratītyasamutpāda
dependent arising, dependent origination, interdependence, interdependent origination
interdépendance*, production interdépendante, production dépendante*, connexions favorables*
originação dependente, interdependência causal, interdependente
interdipendenza, produzione interdipendente, rapporto di reciproca dipendenza
coincidencia auspiciosa, surgimiento dependiente
see rten 'brel bcu gnyis [TPQ, 2010]
07/05/2022
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No
dug lnga
five poisons
cinq poisons*
cinco venenos
cinque veleni
cinco venenos
The five negative emotions: 1) bewilderment, gti mug, Skt. moha (AT: ignorance, confusion), 2) attachment, 'dod chags, rāga (AT: desire), 3) aversion, zhe sdang, dveṣa (including hatred, anger, etc.), 4) jealousy, phra dog, īrsyā, and 5) pride, nga rgyal, māna. The five afflictive emotions of bewilderment, attachment, hatred, pride, and jealousy. [TLWF, 2011] The five principal afflictive emotions: (1) bewilderment, ignorance, or confusion (Tib. gti mug), (2) attachment or desire (Tib. ’dod chags), (3) aversion, hatred, or anger (Tib. zhe sdang), (4) jealousy (Tib. phra dog), and (5) pride (Tib. nga rgyal). [ZT, 2006] The five defilements of bewilderment, attachment, aversion, pride, and jealousy.[NS]
07/05/2022
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No
byang chub sems ; byang chub kyi sems
bodhicitta
bodhicitta, mind of enlightenment, mind turned toward enlightenment, thought of enlightenment, enlightened mind, altruistic mind
esprit d'Éveil, bodhicitta*, Pensée de l'éveil
bodhicitta, mente da iluminação/despertar
bodhicitta, (luminoso) animo del risveglio, mente illuminata,
bodhicitta, mente de la iluminación
On the relative level, it is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all beings, as well as the practice of the path of love, compassion, the six transcendent perfections, etc., necessary for achieving that goal. On the absolute level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature. On the relative level, this is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings, together with the practice necessary to accomplish this. On the absolute level, it is non-dual wisdom, the ultimate nature of the mind and the true status of all phenomena. In certain tantric contexts, bodhichitta refers to the essential physical substance which is the support of the mind. [TPQ, 2010] [LLB, 2002] [CMH, 2001] Lit. “the mind of enlightenment”: on the relative level, it is the wish to attain Buddhahood for the sake of all beings, as well as the practice of the path of love, compassion, the six transcendent perfections, etc. necessary for achieving that goal; on the absolute level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature. [ZT, 2006] The mind of enlightenment. This is a key word in the Mahayana. On the relative level, it is the wish to attain Buddhahood for the sake of all beings, as well as the practice necessary to do this. On the absolute level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature of self and phenomena. [TPTE, 1996] The bodhisattva’s spiritual intent, the mind set on perfect enlightenment. On the relative level, it is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all beings, as well as the practice of the path of love, compassion, the six transcendent perfections, and so forth, necessary for achieving that goal; on the ultimate level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature. [OMS, 2018] The mind set on enlightenment. On the relative level, it is the wish to attain buddhahood for the sake of all beings, as well as the practice of the path of love, compassion, the six transcendent perfections, and so forth necessary for achieving that goal; on the ultimate level, it is the direct insight into the ultimate nature.[NS]
07/05/2022
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No
dge slong , dge slong ma
bhikṣu , bhikṣuni
monk
bhikshu (ssk., m.), bhikshunî (f.)
monge (plenamente ordenado), bhikṣu, bhikṣuni 
Un monaco pienamente ordinato, che ha ricevuto l'ordinazione completa
monje plenamente ordenado, bhikṣu
A fully ordained Buddhist monk. [TPQ, 2010] A fully ordained monk. [NLF, 2005] [GWPT, 2004] [LLB, 2002]
07/05/2022
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No
zhi ba 'tsho , mkhan po bo d+hi sa twa
śāntarakṣita
Śāntarakṣita, Khenpo Bodhisattva
Shantarakshita, Bodhisattva (l'abbé)
Śāntarakṣita, Khenpo Bodhisattva
Śāntarakṣita
Śāntarakṣita, Khenpo Bodhisattva
Also called the Bodhisattva Abbot. This great Indian paṇḍita of the Mahāyāna school was abbot of the Buddhist university of Nālanda and author of a number of philosophical commentaries, such as the Ornament of the Middle Way (dbu ma rgyan, Skt. Madhyamakālankāra-karika). He was invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen to consecrate the site of the first Tibetan monastery at Samye and ordained the first Tibetan monks. [WOMPT, 1998] Also called the Bodhisattva Abbot. A great Indian pandita of the Mahayana School who was abbot of the Buddhist university of Nalanda and author of a number of philosophical commentaries, such as the Adornment of the Middle Way (dbu ma rgyan, Skt. Madhyamakalankara). He was invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen to consecrate the site of the first Tibetan monastery at Samye and to ordain the first Tibetan monks. [ZT, 2006] Also known as Khenpo Bodhisattva. Associated with the monastic university of Nālanda, Śāntarakṣita was the great exponent of the upper school of the Yogācāra Svātantrika Madhyamaka. He visited Tibet in the eighth century at the invitation of King Trisong Detsen and ordained the first seven Tibetan monks. He was thus the source of the so-called smad 'dul, the Lowland or Eastern lineage of monastic ordination followed by Nyingmapas and many Gelugpas. Among the previous Indian holders of the lineage of Śāntarakṣita were Śāriputra, Rāhula (sgra gcan 'azin, another name for Saraha), and Nāgārjuna. It was at the suggestion of Śāntarakṣita that the king invited Guru Rinpoche to Tibet. [TPQ, 2010] Also traditionally referred to as Khenpo Bodhisattva, the Bodhisattva Abbot. A great Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism, abbot of the university of Nalanda, invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen [LLB, 2002] Also known as Khenpo Bodhisattva. Associated with the monastic university of Nalanda, Shantarakshita was the great exponent of the Yogachara- Svatantrika-Madhyamika school. He visited Tibet in the eighth century at the invitation of King Trisong Detsen and ordained the first seven Tibetan monks. It was at the suggestion of Shantarakshita that the king invited Guru Rinpoche to Tibet.. [CMH, 2001] Also known as Khenpo Bodhisattva. Associated with the monastic university of Nalanda, Shantarakshita was the great exponent of the upper school of the Yogachara Svatantrika Madhyamika. He visited Tibet in the eighth century at the invitation of King Trisong Detsen and ordained the first seven Tibetan monks. He was thus the source of the so-called smad 'dul, the Lowland or Eastern lineage of monastic ordination followed by Nyingmapas and many Gelugpas. Among the previous Indian holders of the lineage of Shantarakshita were Shariputra, Rahula (sgra gcan 'dzin, another name for Saraha), and Nagarjuna. It was at the suggestion of Shantarakshita that the king invited Guru Rinpoche to Tibet. [TPQ, 2010]
03/05/2022
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No
zhen yul
adhyavasāya, *adhyavasāya-viṣaya
conceived object
objet conçu
objeto concebido
A technical term in Buddhist logic, used to refer to objects of the conceptual consciousness that identifies and names things. It thus refers to sense objects as apprehended by this consciousness, but also to imaginary objects that are mistakenly assumed to exist (e.g., the "self "). [TPQ, 2010] A technical term in Buddhist logic, used to refer to objects of the conceptual mental consciousness th at identifies and names things. It refers to sense objects as apprehended by this consciousness, but also to objects wrongly assumed to exist (e.g., the self). [IMW 2004]
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No
tshang pa'i 'jig rten
brahmāloka
Monde de Brahmā
-
regno di Brahmā
Mundo de Brahmā
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No
thibs po
opacité mentale*, opaque*
-
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No
srid pa'i rtse mo, srid rtse
bhavāgra
peak of existence, summit of existence, pinnacle of existence, the pinnacle of cyclic existence
Cime du Devenir, Cime de l'Existence (ou du Devenir)
Cume da existência
la punta dell'esistenza, la cuspide dell'esistenza, il più elevato dei livelli dell'esistenza, la più elevata esistenza
cumbre de la existencia, cúspide de la existencia cíclica
The highest level in the formless realm and thus the summit of all possible states in the dimension of samsaric existence. [IMW, 2004] The highest level in the formless realm and thus the summit of all possible states in the dimension of wordly experience. [TPQ, 2010]
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No
spangs blang , spang blang
bannissement et adoption*, rejet et adoption*
-
03/05/2022
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No
snying thig
Nyingtik
Essence du coeur
Nyingthik, A Quintessência
The innermost teachings of the pith-instruction section of Dzogpa Chenpo, or Great Perfection. [LLB, 2002] These are the most profound teachings of the Nyingmapa school, belonging to the innermost cycle of the secret section of the pith instruction class of the atiyoga. They were brought to Tibet by Guru Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra. [CMH, 2001]
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No
skyon ma
doṣa
défauts*, faute*, problème*, faille*
-
pecca, difetto, menda
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No
shin sbyangs, shin tu sbyangs pa
praśrabdhi, pratipraśrabdhi, praśrabdha, praśrabhya , uttapta-hāṭaka, pramṛṣṭa
parfaite souplesse*, malléabilité, souplesse*, flexibilité (physique et mentale)*, maniabilité, maniabilité / souplese*
-
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No
shes sgrib, shes bya'i sgrib pa
jñeyāvaraṇa
cognitive obscurations, conceptual / cognitive obscurations, obscurations veiling knowledge, obscurations to knowledge
voile cognitif, voile à l’omniscience* , voile à la connaissance*, voile du connaissable*
obscurecimentos cognitivos, véus cognitivos
oscuramenti o veli cognitivi
oscurecimientos o velos cognitivos
Dualistic thought processes that apprehend subject, object, and action as being truly existent and that thus act as obstructions to the mind's omniscience. [IMW, 2004] "These are the concepts of subject, object and action, which prevent one from attaining omniscience." DICT. [WOMPT, 1998] [ZT, 2006] Dualistic thought processes that apprehend subject, object, and action as being truly existent and which thus act as obstructions to the mind's omniscience. [TPQ, 2010]
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No
shes rab ye shes kyi dbang , shes rab kyi dbang , shes rab ye shes dbang
prajñājñānābhiṣekha , prajñābhiṣeka
wisdom empowerment, wisdom-knowledge empowerment, third empowerment
Initiation de la connaissance, initiation de sagesse primordiale par le discernement*
iniciação da sabedoria
iniziazione della suprema conoscenza
iniciación de la sabiduría
The third empowerment "that purifies the defilements of the mind, enables one to meditate on the perfection phase and sows the seed for obtaining the vajra mind and the dharmakaya." DICT. [WOMPT, 1998]
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No
sgrib pa gnyis, sgrib gnyis
dvyāvarana, āvarane
two obscurations, two veils
deux voiles
dois obscurecimentos ou véus
due oscuramenti o veli
dos oscurecimientos
Obscurations related to defilements, or defilement-related obscurations (nyon sgrib), and those that obscure knowledge, or cognitive obscurations (shes sgrib). [OMS, 2018] (1) Emotional obscurations (nyon sgrib) such as the afflictions of attachment and anger and (2) cognitive obscuration (shes sgrib), that is, dualistic conceptual thinking, which prevents omniscience. These two obscurations are like veils that cover the ultimate nature of the mind and phenomena. They are also respectively referred to as attachment and impediment (chags thogs). [TPQ, 2010] The obscurations of afflictive emotions and conceptual obscurations. See also obscurations. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006][NS]
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No
rtse gcig
one pointed
concentration en un point, concentration parfaite, attention unifiée/focalisée en un point*; attention exclusive*
focado, unifocal
concentración en un punto, concentración enfocada en un punto
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No
rjes thob (rjes su thob pa)
pṛiṣṭhalabdha , pṛṣṭha­labdha­jñāna
obtention consécutive*, post méditation, obtention subsequente*, Résultant (état, connaissance, sagesse), postabsorption*, regain*
pós-meditação
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No
rje 'bangs grogs gsum
King, Subject and Friend
Roi (le), le Sujet et l'Amie
Rei, Súbdito e Companheira
Re, Suddito e Compagna
Rey, Súbdito y Compañera
King Trisong Detsen, the great translator Vairotsana and the ḍākinī Yeshe Tsogyal. [WOMPT, 1998]
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No
rin po che'i gdugs
ratnachattra
precious canopy
Précieuse ombrelle
precious canopy
prezioso ombrellino
preciosa sombrilla
One of the eight auspicious signs, it corresponds to the Buddha's head and symbolizes protection from negative actions. [WOMPT, 1998]
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No
rigs bzhi
catvāro varṇāḥ
four families, four buddha families
quatro famílias, quatro famílias búdicas
The three buddha families plus one family combining the Action (karma) and Jewel (ratna) families.
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No
rigs bzhi
four castes
quatre castes
quatro castas
The traditional class distinctions of Indian society associated with different psychological types and the kind of work or social function deemed appropriate to them. Over the centuries the caste system developed and is now extremely complex. Buddhist texts refer only to the original fourfold system and repudiate it in the sense of rejecting the idea, still current in Indian society, that such distinctions are immutable and are dictated by the circumstances of birth. The four types or classes are the royal or ruling class (kshatriya, rgyal rigs), the priestly class (brahmin, bram ze rigs), the merchant class (vaishya, rje 'u rigs), and the menial class (shudra, dmangs rigs). [TPQ, 2010] The traditional class distinctions of Indian society associated with different psychological types and the kind of work or social function deemed appropriate to them. Over the centuries the caste system developed and is now extremely complex. Buddhist texts refer only to the original fourfold system and repudiate it in the sense of rejecting the idea, still current in Indian society, that such distinctions are immutable and are dictated by the circumstances of birth. The four types or classes are the royal or ruling class (kshatriya, rgyal rigs), the priestly class (brahmin, bram ze rigs), the merchant class (vaishya, rje 'u rigs), and the menial class (shudra, dmangs rigs). [TPQ, 2010]
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No
rgyan drug
Six Ornaments
Six Ornements
Seis Ornamentos
Sei Ornamenti
Seis ornamentos
The six great commentators of the Buddha's teachings: Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Asanga, Vasubandhu, Dignaga and Dharmakirti. [WOMPT, 1998] The six great Indian commentators of the Buddha’s teachings: Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Asanga, Vasubandhu, Dignaga, and Dharmakirti. [TLWF, 2011] [NLF, 2005]
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No
rgyal sras gzhan phan mtha' yas
Gemang Rinpoche
Gyalsè Shenphen Thayè
Gemang Rinpoche, Gyelse Shenphen Thaye
Refers to Gyelse Shenphen Thaye (18oo- ?), a holder of the Longchen Nyingtik lineage and contemporary of Patrul Rinpoche. [GWPT 2004]
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No
rgyal po'i rol stabs , rgyal po rol stabs
Posture royale
posizione reale
postura real
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No
rang rig pa'i dran pa , rang rig pa'i dran ma
présence d'esprit naturellement consciente*, conscience naturellement présente (car dénuée de toute identité qui apparaît, demeure et cesse de façon absolue)*
-
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No
rang mtshan nyid kyis grub pa , rang mtshan kyis grub pa
lakṣaṇasiddha
existence according to characteristics
existence des choses en vertu de leurs caractères propres*
existência de acordo com as características
A term coined by the Sautrantika-Svatantrikas to refer to phenomena considered as conventionally existent by virtue of their defining properties and functional efficiency. [IMW 2004]
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No
pad ma thod phreng rtsal
Padma Thöthrengtsel, Padma Totrengtsal
Padma Thöthrengtsal
Padma Thötrengtsal
Padma Totrengtsal
lit. “Padma garlanded with skulls.” One of the names of Padmasambhava. [TLWF 2011] Lit., Mighty Lotus Garlanded with Skulls. A name of Guru Padmasambhava. [LLB 2002]
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No
padmo'i dga' tshal
lotuseraie
-
03/05/2022
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No
ngal gso, ngal so
repos*, détente*, aise*
-
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No
ngag dben
vāgviveka
isolement de la parole
-
03/05/2022
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No
nang
intérieur*, interne*
-
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No
nam mkha'i snying po
ākāśagarbha
Namkhai Nyingpo
Namkhai Nyingpo
One of the foremost disciples of Guru Padmasambhava. A great translator, monk, and siddha of the Nub clan whose main seat was Lhodrak Kharchu. [LLB 2002]
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No
nam mkha'i snying po
ākāśagarbha
Akashagarbha
Ākāśagarbha
One of the Eight Great Close Sons. [TLWF 2011]
03/05/2022
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No
mthong lam
darśana­mārga
path of seeing
voie de la vision, voie de vision
via da visão ou caminho da visão
cammino della visione
camino de la visión
The third of the five paths, according to the Bodhisattva vehicle. It is called this because on it one really sees the two kinds of absence of 'self' (i.e. of true, independent existence), that of the individual and that of phenomena. [WOMPT, 1998] The third of the five paths, the stage at which a Bodhisattva in meditation gains a genuine experience of emptiness and attains the first of the ten bodhisattva levels. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006][OMS, 2018][NS]
03/05/2022
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No
mo'u 'gal gyi bu
maudgalyāyana
Maudgalyāyana, Maudgalyaputra.
Maudgalyāyana, Maudgalyayaniputra
Maudgalyāyana
Maudgalyāyana
Maudgalyāyana
One of the two foremost śrāvaka disciples of Śākyamuni Buddha. He was said to be the one who had the greatest miraculous powers. [WOMPT, 1998] One of the two most important disciples of the Buddha Śākyamuni belonging to the śrāvaka sangha (the other being Śāriputra). Maudgalyaputra was endowed with many magical powers. In traditional representations of Buddha Śākyamuni, he and Śāriputra are often depicted standing to right and left of the Master. [TPQ, 2010]
01/05/2022
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No
mnyam nyid kyi ye shes , mnyam nyid ye shes
samatājñāna
wisdom of equality
sagesse de l'égalité, sagesses primordiales de l’égalité*
sabedoria da igualidade
sabiduría de la igualdad
01/05/2022
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No
mngon rtags
anuvyañjanam
signe manifeste*, perception probante*, preuve évidente*
-
01/05/2022
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No
mngon byang lnga
abhisaṃbodhi
fivefold manifest enlightenment, five aspects of true enlightenment, five awakenings, five masteries , five familiarizations
la quintuple et véritable perfection/ le quintuple Réveil, éveils manifestes*
cinco aspetos da verdadeira iluminação
cinco aspectos de la verdadera iluminación
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No
mi slob pa
aśaikṣa
au-delà de l'apprentissage, non-apprentissage*
-
01/05/2022
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No
mi mjed , mi mjed 'jig rten
sahā / saha / sahāloka
Sahā realm, world of patient endurance, the suffering universe, the unbearable world
Saha, Endurance (monde d'~)
Sahā (mundo de), "o mundo da resignação", "o mundo pacientemente suportável"
Universo della Sopportazione
Saha (mundo de), "el mundo difícil de soportar"
Our universe, which is the Buddhafield of Buddha Shakyamuni. [TLWF 2011] The world of no fear, our universe, which is the buddhafield of Buddha Shakyamuni. [GWPT 2004] The realm of no fear, so called because beings are not afraid of the three poisons. The Sahā realm is our universe, which is the buddha-field of Buddha Shākyamuni.[NS]
01/05/2022
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No
mi g.yo ba'i las
āniñjyaṃ karma
unwavering action
acte inamovible, karma inamovible
atividade inabalável
A positive action, such as a profound state of meditation devoid of the motivation of bodhichitta. The characteristic feature of this kind of action is that it invariably produces rebirth in the form or formless realms of saṃsāra. Other actions lack this unwavering or invariable quality in the sense that, depending on circumstances, their result may ripen in a realm different from the one normally to be expected. [TPQ, 2010]
01/05/2022
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No
mi dge ba bcu po
daśākuśala, dasākusalāni
ten negative actions
dix actes négatifs
dez atos negativos
The physical acts of killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; the verbal acts of lying, divisive speech, harsh speech, and meaningless chatter; and the mental acts of covetousness, malice, and wrong view.[OMS, 2018]
01/05/2022
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No
mchod pa
pūjā
offering, worship, veneration, pūjā
offrande*
pūjā (o), oferenda, veneração, reverência
pūjā, ofrenda, veneración, reverencia
01/05/2022
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No
man dal tshom bu bdun ma
Mandala en sept points
-
Mandala de los siete elementos
01/05/2022
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No
mang pos bkur ba, mang bkur ba
sāṃṃitīyā (bhsd) , saṃṃitīyā
Sammitiya
Saṃmitīyas (« Ceux que beaucoup vénèrent)*
Sāṃṃitīyā
The followers of Sammita. This Hinayana group (of which no original writings have survived) seems to have been large and, to judge by the Tibetan name ("honored by many"), prestigious. It is di­vided into three subgroups or lineages: (1) Kaurukullaka (sa sgron ril gnas pa'i sde); (2) Avantava (rung ba pa'i sde); and (3) Vatsiputriya (gnas ma bu ba'i sde) . [IMW 2004]
01/05/2022
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No
ma bcos pa
naisargika
unfabricated, uncontrived
simplicité naturelle de l'esprit, ne rien fabriquer ni réparer, sans contrainte*, non corrigé*; dénué d'artifice*, non fabriqué*, sans artifice*, Inaltéré, non-fabrication*, non artificiel*
não fabricado, não adulterado
inalterato/a
inalterado/a
Left in its original state, without manipulations or fabrications. [WOMPT, 1998]
01/05/2022
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No
lhas sbyin
devadatta
don divin*
don divino
01/05/2022
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No
lhas byin
devadatta
Devadatta
Devadatta,
Devadatta
Devadatta
Devadatta
A cousin of the Buddha, whose jealousy prevented him from deriving any benefit from the teachings. [WOMPT] A cousin of the Buddha, whose jealousy prevented him from deriving any benefit from the teachings. [TLWF 2011]
01/05/2022
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No
lhang nge blta ba, lhang nger lta ba
regarder fixement, directement
-
01/05/2022
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No
las gsog pa , las gsogs pa
Accumulate an action
-
To perform an action or karma. Actions leave traces in the alaya and will subsequently fructify in the sense of bringing forth experiential effects [TPQ, 2010]
01/05/2022
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No
lam me, lam me ba
très brillant*, resplendissant*, vibrant de couleur*
-
01/05/2022
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No
kun 'byung gi bden pa , 'byung ba'i bden pa
nirodhasatya, samudayasatya
origine de la souffrance* , vérité de l'origine*, vérité de l'origine de la souffrance
-
01/05/2022
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No
khams bco brgyad
aṣṭa­daśa­dhātu, aṣṭādaśa, dhātavaḥ
eighteen dhatus
dix-huit éléments
dezoito dhātus
A "sphere" of experience involving a sense power, its object, and the consciousness arising from their conjunction. Although a dhātu in this sense may be considered as a composite of these three elements, in fact each of these elements is referred to as a dhātu in its own right. Thus, the six senses, six objects, and six corresponding consciousnesses may be referred to as the eighteen dhātus, as expounded in the Abhidharma. [TPQ, 2010]
01/05/2022
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No
ji snyed mkhyen pa , ji snyed pa mkhyen pa
yathavad vyavasthana parijnana
knowing each and everything, knowing the multiplicity of phenomena
sagesse qui connaît tout le connaissable, connaissance de la multiplicité (des phénomènes)*
sabedoria que conhece todo e cada um dos fenómenos; sabedoria que conhece a multiplicidade dos fenómenos