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PADMAKARA    MULTILINGUAL LEXICON   TRANSLATOR'S AREA

 བོད་སྐད་     tibetan     sanskrit     deutsch    english     español      français     italiano     polski     português

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wylie | overview
sanskrit - iast
english
français
português
italiano
español
deutsch
polski
definition | eng
updated date
edit
No
snyogs med dpal
Nishkalankashri
Nishkalankashri
“Unsullied Glory.” See Nishkalankavajra. [TLWF 2011]
11/05/2021
edit
No
me long nang gi gzugs brnyan
darpaṇabiṃba
un reflet dans un miroir*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
brgya byin gzhu
indraraṅga
un arc-en-ciel (l’arc de Śakra)*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
dri za'i grong khyer
gandharvanagara
une cité de mangeurs d’odeurs (fata morgana)*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mig 'khrul
indrajāla
une hallucination*
-
09/05/2021
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No
sgyu ma
māyā
illusion*, illusion magique*, fantasmagorie*, une création magique*
-
illusione
09/05/2021
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No
sgyu ma'i dpe bcu gnyis
dvadaśa māyopamā
douze exemples d'illusion*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
stobs bcus
bala
force*
-
09/05/2021
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No
smon lam
praṇidhāna
prière*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
thabs mkhas
upāyakauśalya
moyens habiles*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
chos kyi sprin
dharmameghā
Nuage de doctrine*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
legs pa'i blo gros
sādhumati
Bonne Intelligence*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mi g.yo ba
acalā
immuable*, inamovible*
-
09/05/2021
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No
ring du song ba
durāṇgamā
Allée loin*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mngon du gyur ba
abhimukhī
Celle qui rend manifeste*
-
09/05/2021
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No
sbyang dka'
sudurjayā
Difficile à conquérir*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
'od 'phro ba
arciśmati
Rayonnante*
-
09/05/2021
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No
'od byed pa
prabhākāri
Illuminatrice*
-
09/05/2021
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No
dri med
vimalā
Immaculée*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rab tu dga' ba
pramuditā
perfect joy.
Joyeuse*
-
The first of the bodhisattva grounds, corresponding to the path of seeing. [TPQ, 2010]
09/05/2021
edit
No
'phags pa'i sa / sa
bhūmi
bhūmi, bodhisattva levels, bodhisattva grounds, level, ground, earth
bhoumis, Terres des Bodhisattvas (dix), terre*, niveau*
bhūmi (o), nível, terra
livelli o terre dei bodhisattva
bhūmi, niveles de los bodhisattvas, nivel, tierra
The ten levels of realization reached by Bodhisattvas on the paths of seeing, meditation and beyond learning. In some classifications additional levels are added. "These levels are sublime because they are far beyond ordinary beings." DICT. Ground or level. In the Mahāyāna, the ten grounds of bodhisattva realization (so described from the point of view of post-meditation experience only) extend from the path of seeing through the path of meditation and culminate in the attainment of the path of no more learning, which is buddhahood. The first seven grounds are termed impure, because the defiled emotional consciousness (which, turning toward the ālaya, is what constantly conceives of "I") is still present in the mind of the yogi, and, even though not active, this results in the perception of a distinction between the observing mind and the object observed (gnyis snang). On the eighth ground, this defiled consciousness is removed, with the result that the strongest manifestations of this dualistic appearance are dissipated. On the ninth and tenth grounds, even the most subtle traces of this gradually cease. According to the Hīnayāna, there are eight grounds of realization. According to the Vajrayāna, there are thirteen grounds or more. [TPQ, 2010]
09/05/2021
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No
btang snyoms
upekṣā
impartiality, equanimity, even-mindedness
équanimité*
imparcialidade, equanimidade
equanimità, obiettiva serenità
09/05/2021
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No
ting nge dzin
samādhi
absorption méditative*
-
09/05/2021
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No
shin byangs
praśrabdhi
maniabilité / souplese*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
chos rab tu rnam par 'byed pa
dharmapravicaya
différenciation des enseignements *
-
09/05/2021
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No
dran pa
smṛti
mindfulness, alertness, remember, recollection, attention, etc
attention*, attention-mémoire, mémoire*
atenção plena, atenção contínua, atenção, recordação, ter em mente
09/05/2021
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No
byang chub phyogs chos , byang chub phyogs kyi chos, byang chub kyi phyogs kyi chos sum cu rtsa bdun
bodhyaṇga
factors of awakening, elements leading to enlightenment
trente-sept auxiliaires de l'Éveil* , sept facteurs d’éveil *
trinta e sete fatores do despertar
A system of thirty-seven factors practiced on the paths of accumula­tion, joining, seeing, and meditation, by means of which progress is made toward enlightenment. [IMW, 2004]
09/05/2021
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No
nyer thob
ālokopalabdhi
atteinte proche /imminente*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mched pa
ālokābhāsa
accroissement*
-
09/05/2021
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No
snang ba (s)
avabhāsa, āloka
light, perception, experience, vision
apparence*, perception, manifestation, ressenti, lumière*, lampe, phénomènes, visions*
experiência, visão, perceção, percepção, perceção visual, aparência
apparenze, percezioni, manifestazioni, luce,
experiencia, visión, percepción, percepción visual, apariencia
When it refers to "perception": That which appears in the eyes of each individual according to his or her tendencies or spiritual development. NT, quoting Patrul Rinpoche, speaks of three types of perception: 1) deluded perceptions, which arise in the consciousness of the beings of the six realms due to misunderstanding; they are called the impure deluded perceptions of the universe and beings. 2) the perceptions of interdependence (rten 'brel), magical illusions (sgyu ma), corresponding to the eight similes of illusion which one does not apprehend as real (see page 252); these are the perceptions of the bodhisattvas of the ten levels in their post-meditation state (rjes thob). 3) the authentic, perfect, perceptions of wisdom; when one has realized the natural state of everything, the beings and the universe appear as the display of the kāyas and wisdoms. [WOMPT, 1998] The things that appear to us, that we perceive. [ZT, 2006]
09/05/2021
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No
shes rab
prajñā
wisdom, supreme knowledge/awareness, supreme intelligence, transcendent knowledge
connaissance, sagesse*, connaissance transcendante*, connaissance supérieure*, discernement*, Connaissance suprême*, prajñā?*
conhecimento, sabedoria*, conhecimento supremo
conoscenza suprema o saggezza
The ability to understand correctly, usually with the particular sense of understanding emptiness. AT: discerning wisdom. See also primal wisdom. [WOMPT, 1984] The ability to discern correctly; the understanding of emptiness. [TPQ, 2010]
09/05/2021
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No
brtson 'grus
vīrya
diligence, endeavour, strenousness, effort, exertion
persévérance*
diligência*, entusiasmo, perserverança
09/05/2021
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No
bzod pa
kṣānti
acceptance, patience, forbearance, patient acceptance, receptiveness
endurance*, patience*
paciência, tolerância, aceitação (no caminho da união)
Fearless acceptance of the ultimate nature of things. [IMW, 2004]
09/05/2021
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No
tshul khrims
śīla
discipline, ethics, morality, ethical discipline
discipline*, discipline*, conduite éthique*
disciplina, disciplina ética
09/05/2021
edit
No
sbyin pa
dāna
generosity, giving generously
générosité*
generosidade*, dádiva, doação etc.
generosità
generosidad
09/05/2021
edit
No
pha rol tu phyin pa
pāramitā
pāramitā, transcendent perfection, transcendence, perfection
perfection*, vertu transcendante*
pāramitā, virtude transcendente, perfeição transcendente
perfezione trascendente
The six methods of training in the bodhicitta of application. They are transcendent because they are accompanied by the wisdom of emptiness. See also six transcendent perfections. [WOMPT, 1998] A transcendent perfection or virtue, the practice of which leads to buddhahood and which therefore forms the practice of bodhisattvas. There are six pāramitās: generosity, ethical discipline, patience, diligence, concentration, and wisdom. According to another reckoning there are ten pāramitās, these six with the addition of a further four, regarded as aspects of the wisdom pāramitā. They are: skillful means, strength, aspiration, and primordial wisdom. [TPQ, 2010] A term used to describe the practice of a Bodhisattva, combining skillful means and wisdom, the compassionate motivation of attaining enlightenment for the sake of all beings, and the view of emptiness. See six and ten transcendent perfections. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] See perfections [LLB, 2002] These represent the fundamental practices of the Mahayana path. The six are Generosity, Ethical Discipline, Patience, Diligence, Concentration, and Wisdom. The ten consist of the six just mentioned but with the last perfection of wisdom broken down into the aspects of Means (thabs), Strength (stobs), Aspiration (smon lam), and Primordial Wisdom (ye shes). They are called transcendent because, in conjunction with wisdom, they lead beyond samsara. [LLB, 2002] A transcendent perfection or virtue, the practice of which leads to Buddhahood. There are six paramitas: generosity, ethical discipline, patience, diligence, concentration, and wisdom. [WL, 2012]
09/05/2021
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No
lte bar sprul pa’i 'khor lo
roue d’émanation au nombril (64 pétales)*
-
09/05/2021
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No
me'i 'khor lo
roue du feu à la poitrine (trois pétales)*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rlung gi 'khor lo
roue du vent aux sourcils (6 pétales) *
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
zung 'jug
yuganaddha
Union*, unité*
-
09/05/2021
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No
'od gsal
prabhāsvara
luminosity, clear light, luminous, radiant clarity.
luminosité* (Grande Perfection), claire lumière* (MahaMoudra),
luminosidade
Luminosità
Spontaneous, luminous (or knowing) aspect of the nature of the mind or awareness. [WOMPT, 1998] Name of the third level in the second samādhi of the form realm. The clarity or knowing aspect of the mind. Luminosity means practically the same thing as primordial wisdom.[TPQ, 2010]
09/05/2021
edit
No
sems bden
isolement de l'esprit*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
ngag bden
isolement de la parole*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rjes su dran pa
anusmṛti
rappel / attention consécutive*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
'dzin pa
grahaṇa , dhāraṇā
grasping, clinging, fixation, aprehend, hold on to, belief
attachement, apprehender, saisir, croyance*, adhésion*, saisie*, sujet percevant*, souvenance*, appréhension*, croire (à la réalité de)*; percevoi*
fixação, aferramento, apreender, crença, agarrar-se (à realidade do eu), apego, reter, recordar, memorizar
attaccarsi, apprendersi, afferrarsi, aderire, cogliere (nel senso di intendere, capire)
aferramiento
Also means to have a belief. Thus "ego clinging" can also be interpreted as "believing in an I." [WOMPT,1998] [ZT, 2006]
09/05/2021
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No
'dzin med
sans croyance*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
'tshol ba
chercher*, découvrir*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
'tshang rgya ba
s'éveiller*, atteindre la bouddhéité*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mtshan mar 'dzin pa
croyances à des caractères réels*; réalisme*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rtsol med
sans effort*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rtse gcig
attention unifiée/focalisée en un point*; attention exclusive*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rtsal rdzogs
acquérir la maîtrise*, parfaire*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
rtsal
expression dynamique (de l'esprit)*
-
09/05/2021
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No
rtsa gsum
three roots
trois canaux subtils*
Três Raízes
tre radici
The teacher or lama, root or source of blessings; the yidam, source of accomplishments; and the ḍākinī (or protectors), source of activities. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] The three objects of refuge as expressed in the tantric teachings. These are the Guru, who is the root of blessings; the Yidam, the root of accomplishment; and the Dakinis, the root of activities. [LLB, 2002] The three objects of refuge as spoken of in the tantra teachings: the guru, the root of blessings; the yidam deity, the root of accomplishment; and the dakini, the root of enlightened activities. The three roots are the tantric parallel to the Three Refuges of the sutra teachings. [WL, 2012]
09/05/2021
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No
rtsa rlung thig le
nāḍi, prāṇa, bindu
channels, energies and essence drops
canaux*, souffles et essences*
canais, energias e gotas essenciais
canali, energie e goccie essenziali
canales, energías y gotas esenciales
The subtle channels, wind energies, and essences, brought under control in the practice of Anuyoga. [TPQ, 2010] The subtle channels or veins (nadi, Skt.; rtsa, Tib.), the wind-energies (prana; rltlng), and the bodily essences (bindu; thig le), which are manipulated and brought under control in the course of Anuyoga practice. [LLB, 2002]
09/05/2021
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No
rtsa bral
libre de racine*, sans cause*
-
09/05/2021
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No
rmongs pa
obnubilé*, fourvoyé*, confus*
-
09/05/2021
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No
rmugs pa
torpeur*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
dmigs pa'i rten
support de concentration/d'observation*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
dmigs gtad
point de référence*, référent*; support*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
smra bsam brjod med
indicible*, impensable et indéfinissable*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
myong ba
expérience*; éprouver*
-
09/05/2021
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No
mos pa
conviction*, confiance*
-
09/05/2021
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No
mos gus
dévotion*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
med pa
inexistant*, dénué d'existence*, non-être*, néant*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mun pa
obscurité*, ténèbres*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mig yul
objet visuel*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mi slob ba
au-delà de l'apprentissage*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mi rtog pa
non conceptuel*, sans-pensée*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
mi 'jigs pa
absence de peur*, intrépidité*
-
09/05/2021
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No
mi dge ba
akuśala, aśubha
negative actions, nonvirtue, unwholesome, nonmeritorious deeds
non vertu, acte négatif, non-vertu*, action négative*, non vertueuse*
ação negativa, ação não virtuosa
atto (o azione) negativo, nocivo e controproducente, non virtuoso, male.
Also harmful action, unwholesome act, evil: an action—physical, verbal, or mental—that produces suffering. [ZT, 2006]
09/05/2021
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No
ma bslad pa
inaltéré*, sans tache*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
ma yengs
sans distraction*
-
09/05/2021
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No
ma bcos pa
naisargika
unfabricated, uncontrived
simplicité naturelle de l'esprit, ne rien fabriquer ni réparer, sans contrainte*, non corrigé*; dénué d'artifice*
não fabricado, não adulterado
inalterato/a
Left in its original state, without manipulations or fabrications. [WOMPT]
09/05/2021
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No
ma nges pa
incertitude*, absence de compréhension définitive*, indéterminé*
-
09/05/2021
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No
ma grub pa
manque d'existence réelle*, qui n'existe pas réellement*
manque d'existence réelle, qui n'existe pas réellement
-
*CC [RL, 2010]
09/05/2021
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No
'byung ba bzhi
caturbhūta
four elements
quatre éléments/principes [de la matière]*
quatro elementos
quattro elementi
cuatro elementos
Earth, water, fire and wind or air, as principles of solidity, liquidity, heat and movement. [WOMPT, 1998]
09/05/2021
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No
‘bad med
sans effort*
-
09/05/2021
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No
dbang bzhi
four empowerments
quatre initiations*
quatro iniciações
quattro iniziazioni
cuatro iniciaciones
The vase empowerment, the secret empowerment, the wisdom empowerment and the precious word empowerment. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF 2011]
09/05/2021
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No
dbang po sgo lnga
cinq facultés sensorielles*
-
09/05/2021
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No
blos byas
fabriqué intellectuellement*, construction mentale*
-
09/05/2021
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No
blo bral
détaché de l'intellect*, au-delà de l'esprit conceptuel*
-
09/05/2021
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No
bla ma'i rnal 'byor
guru yoga
Guru Yoga
guru-yoga, yoga du maître
Guru Yoga
Guru Yoga
Guru Yoga
The practice of mixing one's mind with the teacher's mind. [WOMPT] A practice consisting of the visualization of the guru (in whichever form), prayers and requests for blessing, the visualized reception of these blessings, and the merging of the mind in the guru's enlightened wisdom mind. Guru yoga is the single most important practice of tantric Buddhism. [TPQ] [LLB 2002] [CMH 2001]
09/05/2021
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No
byed pa po
agent*, acteur*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
bye brag 'byed pa
examen méticuleux*
-
09/05/2021
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No
'byung gnas 'gro gsum
origine*, durée et disparition*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
bying ba
endormissement*, somnolence*
-
09/05/2021
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No
don dam byang sems
esprit d'Éveil (bodhicitta) ultime*
-
09/05/2021
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No
byang chub
bodhi
enlightenment, awakening, bodhi
Éveil*
iluminação, despertar, budeidade
illuminazione, buddhità
iluminación, despertar, budeidad
oświecenie, przebudzenie
Purification (byang) of all obscurations and realization (chub) of all qualilties. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] See nirvāṇa. [TPQ, 2010]
09/05/2021
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No
bogs 'don
enrichissement (de l'expérience)*, progression*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
bem po stong pa nyid
vacuité inerte*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
bu'i 'od gsal
putraprabhāsvara
claire lumière fille*
-
09/05/2021
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No
bag yod
application*, circonspection*, autodiscipline*
-
09/05/2021
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No
bag yangs
sans souci*, décontracté*
-
09/05/2021
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No
bag med
insouciance*, inattention*
-
09/05/2021
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No
'phro bcad
mettre un terme*, arrêter*
-
09/05/2021
edit
No
srog rtsol
prānāyāma
vitalité-et-effort*, contrôle du souffle vital*, yoga des souffles*
-
07/05/2021
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No
sbyor ba yan lag drug
yogāṇga
six branches du yoga (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*
-
07/05/2021
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No
nor las rgyal
dhanañjaya
vainqueur sur les richesses*
-
07/05/2021
edit
No
lhas sbyin
devadatta
don divin*
-
07/05/2021
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No
rtsangs pa
kṛkara
caméléon (lézard)*
-
07/05/2021
edit
No
rus sbal
kūrma
tortue*
-
07/05/2021
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No
klu , klu mo
nāga , nāginī
nāga
serpent aquatique* , serpent (dragon)*
nāga (m), nāginī (f), espírito-serpente
nāga
A kind of snakelike being living in the depths of water or under the ground. Although they have miraculous powers they are classified as belonging to the animal realm. See three worlds. [WOMPT, 1998] A serpentlike being (classed in the animal realm) living in the water or under the earth and endowed with magical powers and wealth. The most powerful ones have several heads. In Indian mythology they are preyed on by the garudas. [TLWF, 2011] A powerful creature figuring in the Buddhist and Hindu worldview, closely associated with snakes and endowed with intelligence, magical powers, and great wealth. Nāgas are said to live beneath the earth and to inhabit the watery element; in traditional medicine, they are linked with certain diseases, especially those of the skin. [TPQ, 2010] A serpent-like being (classed in the animal realm) living in the water or under the earth and endowed with magical powers and wealth. The most powerful ones have several heads. [NLF, 2005][ZT, 2006] A magical and powerful creature frequently figuring in the Buddhist and Hindu worldview. Nagas are associated with serpents and are said to inhabit the watery element or regions below the surface of the earth. [LLB, 2002]
07/05/2021
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No
khyab byed
vyāna
souffles principaux imprégnant*
-
07/05/2021
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No
gyen rgyu
udāna
souffles principaux ascendant*
-
07/05/2021
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No
mnyam gnas
samāna
souffles principaux équilibrant, demeurant égal*
-
07/05/2021
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No
thur sel
apāna
souffles principaux descendant et évacuant*
-
07/05/2021
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No
srog 'dzin
prāna
souffles principaux soutenant la vie*, souffle vital*
-
07/05/2021
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No
rlung
prāṇa (vāyu)
energy, vital energy, subtle energy, wind, breath, prana, energy, wind-energy, vital-energy, subtle-energy, psychic energy, subtle wind
souffles, vents, énergies subtiles, souffle*, air (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*, souffle*, vent*, énergie*, souffles principaux*
prāṇa (o), energia subtil, vento
energie (sottili) o venti
prāṇa, energía sutil, viento, energía vital, energía psíquica, viento sutil
1) Its characteristic is to be "light and mobile." The mind is described as riding on the rlung like a rider on a horse. Five different types of rlung regulate the functions of the body: i) the ascending energy (gyen rgyu), ii) the energy of evacuation (thur sel), iii) the fiery energy (me mnyam), iv) all-pervading energy (khyab byed) and v) the life-supporting energy (srog 'dzin)) 2) One of the three humours according to Tibetan medicine. See also bile, phlegm. [WOMPT, 1998] A psychophysical component that circulates in the subtle channels of the body and acts as the support of the mind. In ordinary beings the wind energy is impure. It is called karmic energy (las kyi rlung) because it is contaminated by karma. When purified, however, it becomes wisdom energy (ye shes kyi rlung). [TPQ, 2010] Lit. “wind,” being described as “light and mobile”: any one of a number of subtle energies that regulate the functions of the body and influence the mind, which is said to ride or be carried on the rlung like a rider on a horse. Mastery of these subtle energies in the perfection phase greatly enhances the practitioner’s realization. See also channels and energies. [ZT, 2006] Subtle energies circulating in the subtle channels of the body and acting as the vehicle of the essence- drops, the support of the mind. [LLB, 2002]
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No
mi slob pa'i lam
aśaikṣa mārga
path of no more learning, no more training
voie au-delà de l'entraînement, voie sans-apprentissage*
via além da aprendizagem, caminho além da aprendizagem
camino más allá del aprendizaje
the last of the five paths, the culmination of the path to perfect enlightenment—Buddhahood. [TLWF, 2011]
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No
sgom lam
bhāvanāmārga
path of meditation, path of development, path of cultivation
voie de la méditation*
via da meditação, caminho da meditação
The fourth of the five paths, during which a Bodhisattva traverses the remaining nine of the ten levels. [TLWF 2011]
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No
mthong lam
darśana mārga
path of seeing
voie de vision*
via da visão ou caminho da visão
cammino della visione
camino de la visión
The third of the five paths, according to the Bodhisattva vehicle. It is called this because on it one really sees the two kinds of absence of 'self' (i.e. of true, independent existence), that of the individual and that of phenomena. [WOMPT, 1998] The third of the five paths, the stage at which a Bodhisattva in meditation gains a genuine experience of emptiness and attains the first of the ten bodhisattva levels. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006]
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No
sbyor lam
prayogamārga
path of joining, path of application
voie de l'union/jonction, voie de préparation / jonction*, voie de jonction*
via da união, caminho da união ou junção
cammino di congiunzione
The second of the five paths. On this path one connects oneself to or prepares oneself for seeing the two kinds of absence of self. [WOMPT, 1998] The second of the five paths. On this path one connects oneself to or prepares oneself for seeing the two kinds of no-self on the path of seeing. [TLWF, 2011] The first two of the five paths that prepare the Bodhisattva for attaining the path of seeing. [ZT, 2006]
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No
tshogs lam
sambhāramārga
path of accumulation, path of accumulating
voie de l'accumulation*, voie d'accumulation*
via da acumulação, caminho da acumulação
cammino dell’accumulazione
camino de la acumulación
The first of the five paths towards total enlightenment, according to the Bodhisattva vehicle. On this path one accumulates the causes which will make it possible to proceed towards enlightenment. [WOMPT, 1998] The first of the five paths, according to the Bodhisattva vehicle. On this path one accumulates the causes that will make it possible to proceed toward enlightenment. [TLWF, 2011] The first two of the five paths that prepare the Bodhisattva for attaining the path of seeing. [ZT, 2006]
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No
lam
mārga
path
voie*, chemin*
caminho, via
Progress toward enlightenment is described, in both the Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna, in terms of the five paths of accumulation, joining, seeing, meditation, and no more learning. The first four constitute the path of learning (slob pa'i lam); the fifth one, the path of no more learning (mi slob pa'i lam), is buddhahood. The paths of seeing and meditation are also termed "noble path." [TPQ, 2010] In both the Mahayana and Hinayana (though differently in each case), progress towards enlightenment is described in terms of five paths or degrees of attainment. The paths are called, progressively, Accumulation, Joining, Seeing, Meditation, and No More Learning. Bodhisattvas on the Mahayana paths of Accumulation and Joining are referred to as "ordinary" or "mundane" since their practice has not yet brought them beyond samsara. Those on the levels of the Mahayana Path of Seeing and Meditation (in which emptiness is directly perceived) are called "noble" or "superior," i.e., Aryas. See also grounds [LLB, 2002]
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No
mnyam nyid ye shes
samatajñāna
sagesses primordiales de l’égalité*
-
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No
bya sgrub ye shes
kṛtyānuṭhānajñāna
sagesses primordiales qui accomplit les activités*
-
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No
me long lta bu'i ye shes
ādarśajñānaṃ
mirror-like wisdom
sagesse comme un miroir, sagesse semblable au miroir, sagesses primordiales pareille au miroir*
sabedoria semelhante a um espelho
sabiduría como un espejo
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No
sor rtog ye shes
pratyavekṣanājñāna
sagesses primordiales discriminante*
-
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No
chos kyi dbyings ye shes
ādarśajñāna
sagesses primordiales de la dimension absolue*
-
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No
ye shes
jñāna
wisdom, primordial wisdom, primal wisdom, gnosis, pristine cognition
sagesse, sagesse primordiale*, gnose, sapience, conscience primordiale*, sagesse primordiale, non conceptuelle*
sabedoria primordial, sabedoria
conoscenza primordiale o saggezza
sabiduría primordial, sabiduría
"the knowing (shes pa) that has always been present since the beginning (ye nas), awareness, clarity-emptiness, naturally dwelling in the mindstream of all beings." DICT. [WOMPT, 1998] The knowing (shes pa) that has always been present since the beginning (ye nas); awareness, clarity-emptiness, naturally dwelling in all beings. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] The primordial and nondual knowing aspect of the nature of the mind. [TPQ, 2010] Pure awareness, spontaneously present in the minds of beings from beginningless time. [LLB, 2002]
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No
gsang gnas su bde skyong 'khor lo
roue qui maintient la félicité au lieu secret (32 pétales) *
-
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No
'khor lo
cakra
center, chakra, wheel
roue (de canaux) (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*, roues de canaux*
centro (enquanto ponto chave do corpo subtil), cakra (o)
cakra
chakra, rueda
One of the centers of energy at different points on the central channel, from which radiate the small subtle channels going to all parts of the body. Generally there are considered to be four or five of these wheels. [WOMPT, 1998][TLWF 2011] Lit. wheel. These are centres of the psychophysical wind energy located at the different points on the central channel, from which smaller channels radiate to the rest of the body. Depending on the teachings and practice in question, their number varies from four to six. [TPQ, 2010] Centers of subtle wind-energies situated on the central channel of the body, the avadhuti. [LLB, 2002] lit. wheel or channel-wheel. A configuration of spokes or petal-like channels resembling a wheel, which is supported by the central channel. Depending on the tantra, four or six chakras are mentioned. The dharmachakra is the channel-wheel situated at the level of the heart. [WL, 2012]
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No
rdo rje
vajra
vajra, diamond, indestructible
vajra*, diamant*, sceptre adamantin, adamantin*, du vajra (Akśobya)*
vajra, indestrutivel, diamante, adamantino
vajra, diamante, adamantino
AT: diamond, adamantine thunderbolt. Symbol of unchanging and indestructible wisdom capable of penetrating through everything. Ritual instrument symbolizing compassion, skilful means, awareness. Always associated with the bell (Tib. dril bu, Skt. ghaṇṭā), the symbol of wisdom, emptiness. For the vajra's form see illustration of Vajrasattva who holds the vajra in his right hand and the bell in his left. [WOMPT, 1998] Also diamond, adamantine thunderbolt: a symbol of unchanging and indestructible wisdom capable of penetrating through everything; a ritual instrument symbolizing compassion, skillful means, or awareness, and always associated with the bell, the symbol of wisdom or emptiness. [ZT, 2006] lit. “lord of stones.” On account of the diamond’s seven characteristics (it cannot be cut, it is indestructible, true, hard, enduring, unimpeded, and invincible), the terms “diamond” and “adamantine” are used to represent the unchanging, indestructible nature of reality and to thus qualify an enlightened being’s body, speech, mind, wisdom, concentration, posture, and so forth. In this book, the symbolic implement of the same name, originally a weapon used by Indra, is denoted by its Indian name, “vajra.” [TLWF, 2011] Diamond or vajra weapon, a symbol of indestructibility, also used to represent skillful means or compassion. The vajra or dorje is frequently employed in tantric rituals in conjunction with a bell (dril bu), which in tum symbolizes the wisdom of emptiness. [TPQ, 2010] Diamond or vajra weapon. The symbol of indestructibility and of compassion. A vajra is also a small implement used in conjunction with a bell (dril bu, the symbol of the wisdom of emptiness) during tantric rituals. [LLB, 2002] A substance akin to adamant or diamond. Sometimes referred to as a thunderbolt, it is an emblem of indestructibility. In the form of a ritual implement, regularly used in tantric ceremonies, the vajra is the symbol of skillful means, that is, compassion, and is coupled with the bell (Skt. ghanta; Tib. dril bu), symbolizing the wisdom of emptiness. [WL, 2012]
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No
las
karma
karma, action
karma*, acte* (voir glossaire d’énumérations)*, du karma (Amoghasiddhi)*
karma, ação, lei de causa-efeito
karma, azione del principio di causa ed effetto
karma, acción, ley de causa-efecto
We have generally preferred to say "the effects of actions," "actions and their effects" or the "principle of cause and effect." Karma literally means simply "action," but is often used loosely to mean the result produced by past actions (las kyi 'bras bu, Skt. karmaphala). [WOMPT, 1998] Also translated in this book as “actions,” or as “past deeds.” Implied in the use of this term is the force created by a positive or negative action which is then stored in an individual’s stream of being and persists until it is experienced as pleasure or pain (usually in another life), after which the deed is said to be exhausted. Although the Sanskrit term karma simply means “action,” it has come to be widely used to signify the result produced by past deeds (Tib. las kyi ’bras bu), which is sometimes wrongly equated with destiny or fate, that is, with something beyond one’s control. In the Buddhist teachings, the principle of karma covers the whole process of deeds leading to results in future lives, and this is taught as being something that is very definitely within one’s control. See also law of cause and effect. [TLWF, 2011] Action, the psychophysical principle of cause and effect according to which all experiences are the result of previous actions, and all actions are the seeds of future existential situations. Actions resulting in the experience of happiness are defined as virtuous; actions which give rise to suffering are described as non-virtuous. [TPQ, 2010] [LLB, 2002][CMH, 2001] Although this term simply means “action,” it has come to be widely used to signify the result produced by past actions (Tib. las kyi ’bras bu), often with the implication of destiny or fate and of something beyond one’s control. In the Buddhist teachings, the principle of karma covers the whole process of actions leading to results in future lives, which is something that is very definitely within one’s control. See also law of cause and effect. [ZT, 2006] Sanskrit word meaning "action," understood as the law of causality. According to the Buddha's teaching, all actions, whether of thought, word or deed, are like seeds which will eventually bear fruit in terms of experience, whether in this or future lives. A positive or virtuous act will result in happiness, while the definition of sin or negative action is that which is the cause of suffering for the agent later on. [TEPTE, 1996]
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No
pad ma
du lotus (Amitābha) *
-
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No
rin po che
ratna
rinpoche
du joyau (Ratnasambhava)*
rinpoche
Literally "most precious one," a form of address used in Tibetan Buddhism for incarnate lamas, abbots and respected teachers. [TEPTE, 1996]
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No
de zhin gshegs pa
du tathāgata (Vairocana)*
-
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No
rigs
gotra
famille* , classe*, disposition (spirituelle)*, filiation*, familles de bouddha*
-
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No
mngon byang nga
éveils manifestes*
-
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No
dus
kalpa
temps
-
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No
sems can , 'gro ba
sattva
sentient being, being
êtres, êtres vivants*
ser senciente, ser
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No
nyon mongs pa, nyon mongs
kleśa
negative emotions, conflicting emotions, afflictions, defilements, defiled emotions
émotions négatives, émotions perturbatrices, facteurs mentaux obscurcissants, affliction*, perturbation*, afflictions / perturbations mentales*, passions*, perturbation mentale*
emoções negativas, emoções conflituosas, emoções, kleśa, emoções aflitivas
emozioni afflittive o negative, afflizioni mentali
emociones negativas, emociones aflictivas, emociones perturbadoras, kleśa
"Mental phenomena which assail body and mind and lead to harmful actions, creating a state of mental torment." DICT. AT: afflictive emotions, passions, afflictions. Synonym of poison (dug). See five poisons. [WOMPT, 1998] Mental factors that produce states of mental torment both immediately and in the long term. The five principal kleśas, which are sometimes called poisons, are attachment, hatred, ignorance, envy, and pride. [TPQ, 2010] Mental factors that influence thoughts and actions and produce suffering. For the three and five principal afflictive emotions, see three poisons and five poisons. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] Mental factors that influence thoughts and actions and produce suffering. The five principal afflictive emotions are attachment, aversion or hatred, bewilderment or ignorance, jealousy, and pride. [NLF 2005]
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No
lta ba
dṛṣṭi , darśana
view
vue*, regarder*, observer*
visão, ponto de vista
visione
visión, punto de vista
1) point of view, belief. 2) the authentic point of view, the real knowledge of the natural state of all phenomena. [WOMPT, 1998]
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No
tshe
āyuḥ
longévité*
-
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No
snyigs ma
kaśāya
dégénérescences*
-
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No
dge 'dun dbyin 'byed pa
samghabeda
causer un schisme dans la communauté*
-
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No
de bzhin gshegs pa'i sku las ngan sems kyis khrag phyung ba
tathāgatasyāntike duṣticittarūdhirotpādanam
faire couler le sang d'un bouddha avec malveillance*
-
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No
dgra bcom pa bsad pa
arhatgāta
tuer un arhat*
-
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No
ma bsad pa
mātragāta
tuer sa mère*
-
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No
pha bsad pa
pitṛagāt
tuer son père*
-
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No
mtshams med lnga
pañcānantarīyāṇi, ānantaryākarman
five crimes with immediate retribution, five sins of immediate effect.
cinq actes à rétribution immédiate*, crimes à rétribution immédiate*
cinco ações negativas com retribuição imediata
cinque crimini a effetto immediato
cinco crímenes de efecto inmediato
i) killing one's father or ii) one's mother or iii) an Arhat; iv) creat- ing a split in the Sangha; v) malevolently causing a Buddha to bleed. Someone who has committed one of these five actions takes rebirth in the hell of Ultimate Torment immediately after death, without going through the intermediate state. [WOMPT, 1998] These are: to kill one's father, to kill one's mother, to kill an Arhat, to attack and injure a Buddha so as to draw blood, and to cause a schism in the Sangha. These actions are of immediate effect because they are so grave that their strength overrides any other karma and at death the person concerned falls directly into hell without even passing through the bardo state. [TPQ, 2010] Also called five sins with immediate effect: (1) killing one’s father, (2) killing one’s mother, (3) killing an Arhat, (4) creating a split in the Sangha, and (5) malevolently causing a Buddha to bleed. Some- one who has committed one of these five actions takes rebirth in the Hell of Torment Unsurpassed immediately after death, without going through the intermediate state. [NLF, 2005] Five negative actions that are so grave that they provoke immediate descent into the lower realms after death. They are killing one's mother; killing one's father; killing an Arhat; with evil intention causing the blood of a Buddha to flow; and provoking a schism in the spiritual community. Whoever commits such an action is said to be reborn in the Hell of Torment Unsurpassed immediately after death, without even passing through the bardo state. [LLB, 2002]
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No
ro gcig
one taste
unique saveur*
sabor único
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No
zag zad mkhyen pa
āsrakśayavijñāna
connaissance de la fin des souillures*
-
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No
sngon gnas rjes su dran ma
pūrvāpara
souvenir des vies antérieures*
-
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No
gzhan sems shes pa
paracittajñāna
télépathie*
-
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No
rdzu 'phrul
ṛddhi , ṛddhipāda
pouvoirs de manifestation/ miraculeux*, (pouvoir de) manifestation magique*, miracle*, prodige*
-
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No
lha'i mig
divyacakśu
œil divin*
-
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No
mngon par shes pa
abhijñatva, abhijña
connaissance extraordinaire*
-
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No
rnam par shes pa , rnam shes
vijñāna
conciousness
conscience*, conscience (ordinaire)*
consciência
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No
'du byed
saṃskāra
formations / facteurs de composition*, application*, attention*, formations karmiques*
-
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No
'du shes
saṃjña
perceptions*
-
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No
tshor ba
vedanā
sensations*
-
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No
gzugs
rūpa
forme / matière*, formes*
-
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No
phung po
skandha
Aggregates, skandhas, "heap"
agrégat*, agrégats*
skandha, agregado
skandha, agregado, montón
The five skandhas are the component elements of form, feeling, perception, conditioning factors, and consciousness. They are the elements into which the person may be analyzed without residue. When they appear together, the illusion of self is produced in the ignorant mind. [TPQ, 2010] These are the five psychophysical constituents of the individual person: form, feelings, perceptions, conditioning factors, and consciousness [IMW, 2004] See five aggregates. [ZT, 2006] The five constituents, one physical and four mental, found when, in the search for the self, the human “person” is subjected to analytical investigation. They are the material form or body, feelings, perceptions, conditioning factors, and consciousness. The coming together of these aggregates gives rise to the impression of “I.” [WL, 2012]
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No
rnal 'byor chen po
mahāyogaḥ
grand yoga*
-
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No
shin tu rnal 'byor
yoga supérieur*
-
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No
rjes su rnal 'byor
yoga consécutif *
-
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No
rnal 'byor
yoga
practice, yoga
yoga (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*, yogas* pratique
yoga, união meditativa, união com o estado natural, prática
yoga
lit. “union (Tib. ’byor) with the natural state (rnal ma).” A term for spiritual practice. [WOMPT, 1998] [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] lit. joining ('byor) or union with the natural state of the mind (rnal ma). A term commonly used to refer to spiritual practice. [TPQ, 2010] Lit. “union with the natural state”: a term for spiritual practice. [NLF, 2005]
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No
thams cas stong pa
sarvaśūnya
vide total*
-
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No
stong pa chen po
mahāśūnya
grand vide*
-
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No
shin tu stong pa
atyantaśūnya
vide extrême (« très-vide »)*
-
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No
stong pa
vide (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*, vides*
-
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No
lam gyi bden pa
mārgasatya
vérité de la voie*
-
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No
'byung gi bden pa
duḥkhasamudayasatya
vérité de l’origine*
-
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No
sdug bsngal gyi bden pa
duḥkhasatya
vérité de la souffrance*
-
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No
'phags pa'i bden pa
āryasatya
vérités des êtres sublimes*
-
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No
rnal 'byor bla med kyi rgyud
anuttarayogatantra
tantra de l'union insurpassable*
-
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No
rnal 'byor rgyud
yogatantra
yogatantra
tantra de l'union*
yogatantra
The third of the outer sections of tantra. It emphasizes meditation, the importance of the mind, in order to realize emptiness, without neglecting, however the external discipline of the body and speech. [LLB, 2002]
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No
sbyod rgyud
caryātantra
tantra de la conduite*
-
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No
bya ba , bya rgyud
kriyā , kriyātantra
Kriyā (yoga)
tantra de l'action*
Kriyā (yoga), kriyātantra
Kriyā (yoga)
Kriyā (yoga), kriyātantra
The first of the three outer tantras, the fourth of the nine vehicles. In this type of practice the stress is mainly put on correct external behaviour and cleanliness. [WOMPT, 1998] The first of the three outer tantras, according to the Nyingma system of the nine vehicles, in which emphasis is placed on the purification of the body and speech. [LLB 2002]
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No
rgyud
tantra
tantra, continuum, stream of being, mind stream, mind
tantra*, continuum*, courant de conscience*, série psychique*, continuum mental*
Tantra, contínuo mental, mente
tantra
kontinuum, ciąg umysłu, ciąg istnienia, tantra, linia
Text based on the original purity of the nature of mind, whose fruit is the realization of that nature. The root texts of the Vajrayāna teachings. [WOMPT, 1998] Any one of the texts on which the Diamond Vehicle teachings are based. They reveal the continuity between the original purity of the nature of mind and the result of the path, which is the realization of that nature. [TLWF, 2011] [ZT, 2006] lit. “continuity,” also translated as stream of being, mind, continuum, being. This term denotes that aspect of an individual that continues from one moment to the next and from one lifetime to the next, and which therefore includes the individual’s stock of positive and negative deeds, and positive and negative habitual tendencies.[TLWF, 2011] lit. continuum. The texts of Vajrayāna Buddhism expounding the natural purity of the mind. The Nyingma school classifies the tantras into outer tantras (Kriya, Upa, and Yoga) and inner tantras (Mahāyoga, Anuyoga, and Atiyoga). The Sarma, or New Translation, tradition uses another method, dividing the tantras into four classes: Kriya, Upa, Yogatantra, and Anuttaratantra. [TPQ, 2010][CMH, 2001] A term with many levels of meaning. Here it mainly refers to the esoteric texts of Vajrayana Buddhism expounding the natural purity of the mind. [LLB, 2002] The texts of Vajrayana Buddhism expounding the natural purity of the mind. See also agama. [WL, 2012]
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No
sku phyag rgya chen po
kāyamahāmudrā
grand sceau*
-
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No
chos kyi phyag rgya
dharmamudrā
sceau de la doctrine*
-
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No
dam tshig gi phyag rgya
samayamudrā
sceau d'engagement*
-
06/05/2021
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No
ye shes kyi phyag rgya
jñānamudrā
sceau de sagesse primordiale*
-
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No
las kyi phyag rgya
karma mudrā
karmamudra
sceau d'action*
karma mudrā
In this context, a name given to partner in the practice of skillful means (see definition of third empowerment in the entry for empowerment). The karmamudra is the source of the wisdom of bliss-voidness. [LLB, 2002]
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No
phyag rgya chen po
mahāmudrā
Mahāmudrā, Great seal
mahāmudrā* ; grand sceau*
Mahāmudrā, Grande Selo
Mahāmudrā
Mahāmudrā, Gran Sello
The Great Seal means that the seal of the absolute nature is on everything, that all phenomena belong to the wisdom maṇḍala. This term can be used to denote the teaching, meditation practice or supreme accomplishment. [WOMPT, 2010] [ZT, 2006] The Great Seal, i.e., the seal of emptiness on all phenomena. It refers both to the path (teaching and practice of the Mahamudra) and the result (accomplishment of Mahamudra). Mahamudra is comparable to the Nyingma teachings of Dzogchen, from which it is, however, subtly different. [LLB, 2002] The Great Seal, the highest view according to the Kagyupa tradition. [TEPTE, 1996]
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No
phyag rgya
mudrā
mudra, seal, hand gesture
sceau*, geste*, partenaire de pratique (voir glossaire d'énumérations)*
mudrā (o), gesto, selo
mudrā
A term with several levels of meaning. Basically, it means a ritual gesture performed with the hands. [TPQ] A term with various meanings dependent on context. They include: a seal, a hand gesture, a spiritual consort. [GWPT 2004] Lit., a ritual gesture, sign, seal. There are four types of mudra, which have numerous levels of meaning according to the context. [LLB 2002]
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No
lte bar sprul pa'i 'khor lo
roue d’émanation au nombril (64 pétales)*
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No
snying khar chos kyi 'khor lo
roue des phénomènes au cœur (8 pétales)*
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No
mgrin par longs spyod rdzogs pa'i 'khor lo
roue de jouissance à la gorge (16 pétales)
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No
gtsug tor du bde chen 'khor lo
roue de grande félicité au sommet de la tête (32 pétales)*
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No
khyab pa
vyāpti
inclusion, implication*, diffusion*
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No
zlog pa
renversement*
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No
bzung ba
rétention*
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No
dbab pa
descente*
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No
thig le
bindu
bindu, essence, essential drop, subtle essence, drop, circle, sphere
goutte(s)*, essence subtile, sphere, essence vitale*, phases du yoga de la goutte*
bindu, essência vital, essência, círculo, disco, gota
bindu, goccia essenziale, intima essenza, elemento essenziale, circoletto, sfera
lit. círculo, esfera, punto, gota.
"Essence or seed of the great bliss; in the channels there are different kinds, pure or degenerate." DICT. The term thig le has a number of different meanings according to the context and type of practice. [WOMPT, 1998] [ZT, 2006] On the external level, this is regarded as the quintessential element of the physical body. On the subtle level, the term is used to refer to the "absolute bodhichitta," in other words, the nature of the mind. [LLB, 2002]
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No
de kho na nyid , de nyid
tattva
le réel*, l'ainsité*, vraie nature de la réalité*, d'ainsité*
talidade, natureza absoluta
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No
gsang ba
secrète*
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No
nang
interne*
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No
phyi
extérieur*, externe *
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No
mchod pa
pūjā
offrande*
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No
ye shes la yang dag par dbang thob pa
celui qui a obtenu une parfaite maîtrise de la sagesse primordiale*
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No
ye shes la cung zad dbang thob pa
celui qui a obtenu un peu de maîtrise au regard de la sagesse primordiale*
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No
ye shes la cung zad babs pa
celui sur lequel est descendu un peu de sagesse primordiale*
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No
las dang po pa
débutant*
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No
bskyed rim gnas skabs bzhi
moments de la phase de création*
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No
lhan cig skyes pa'i dga' ba
sahajamuditā
joie simultanée, coémergente*
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No
dga bral
joie affranchie*
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