Termo

Tibetano:

མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་

mya ngan las 'das pa

para além do "sofrimento", isto é dos estados maus

Sânscrito:

निर्वाण

nirvāṇa

extinto

Português:

nirvāṇa

Lit. “além do sofrimento”. Como termo geral, indica os vários níveis de iluminação alcançáveis tanto no Hīnayāna quanto no Mahāyāna; a saber: a iluminação dos śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas e budas. No entanto, enquanto objetivo do Hīnayāna deve ser entendido como a libertação do saṃsāra, por outras palavras, este não deve ser entendido como budeidade. No Mahāyāna, a budeidade transcende com- pletamente tanto o sofrimento do saṃsāra quanto a paz do nirvāṇa. [STLX]

English:

nirvāṇa

The state beyond suffering. The conception of nirvāṇa differs in the Śrāvakayāna, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna. [WOMPT]

lit. the state beyond suffering. As a blanket term, this indicates the various levels of enlightenment attainable in both the Śrāvakayāna and Mahāyāna, namely, the enlightenment of the srāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and Buddhas. It should be noted, however, that when nirvāṇa, or enlightenment, is understood simply as emancipation from saṃsāra (the goal, in other words, of the Hīnayāna), it is not to be understood as buddhahood. As expounded in the Mahāyāna, buddhahood utterly transcends both the suffering of saṃsāra and the peace of nirvāṇa. Buddhahood is therefore referred to as "nonabiding nirvāṇa" (mi gnas myang 'das), in other words, a state that abides neither in the extreme of saṃsāra nor in that of peace. [TPQ] [CMH 2001]

While this can be loosely understood as the goal of Buddhist practice, the opposite of samsara or cyclic existence, it is important to realize that the term is understood differently by the different vehicles: the nirvana of the Basic Vehicle, the peace of cessation that an Arhat attains, is very different from a Buddha’s “nondwelling” nirvana, the state of perfect enlightenment that transcends both samsara and nirvana. [TLWF 2011] [ZT 2006]

Lit. “beyond suffering”: while this can be loosely understood as the goal of Buddhist practice, the opposite of samsara, it is important to realize that the term is understood differ- ently by the different vehicles; the nirvana of the Basic Vehicle, the peace of cessation that an Arhat attains, is very different from a Buddha’s nirvana, the state of perfect enlightenment that transcends both samsara and nirvana. [NLF 2005]

Lit., the state beyond suffering. This term indicates the various levels of enlightenment as set forth in both the Shravakayana and Mahayana teachings. [LLB 2002]